ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: bullying; dentofacial features; physical features; schoolchildren
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:48:47 CEST)
Context: bullying among schoolchildren is a serious phenomenon and a leading health concern. Aim: to determine the prevalence of bullying, its forms, and its effect on academic abilities and school attendance, as well as associated sociodemographic, physical, and dentofacial features among Saudi schoolchildren. Methods: this cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 1131 parents of schoolchildren 8-18 years old and requested them to complete internationally accepted questionnaires for their children. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: a majority (89.2%) of schoolchildren were bully victims. Physical bullying (48.9%) was the most common form of bullying. The youngest schoolchildren (8-11 years), those who disliked school classes or neither liked nor hated them, as well as those who were truant from school were more likely to be victims. In addition, those who had worse grades because of bullying, and those who were very often bullied because of good grades or because they showed an interest in school were more likely to be victims. With regards to targeted physical features, teeth were the number one target, followed by the shape of the lips and strength, while teeth shape and color was the most common dentofacial target, followed by anterior open bite and protruded anterior teeth. Boys and the youngest schoolchildren were more often subjected to bullying because of these features (p<0.05). Conclusions: the prevalence of bullying, mainly in a physical form, was high among Saudi schoolchildren, with a negative influence on students’ academic abilities. Problems related to teeth, in particular, which can be treated, were targets, mainly for boys and the youngest schoolchildren. More studies are required in Saudi Arabia to explore the issue further among schoolchildren, themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0207.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: musculoskeletal pain; body height; body weight; schoolchildren
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:07:54 CET)
Background Children often suffer the nonspecific musculosceletal pain as reported in literature. Aim To determine relationship between body weights with development of musculoskeletal pain and to determine whether growing in body height is associated with musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. Subjects/ Methods A prospective longitudinal study included 1315 school children aged 7-14 years (652 boys and 663 girls) and was performed in 13 elementary schools in B&H. Child body height and body weight were measured. The survey of perception of musculoskeletal pain in different body regions of subjects was conducted by adjusted Nordic Musculosceletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Results The highest prevalence of an overweight and obesity in the 10th year 35.7% and the lowest frequency 17.8% in the 14th year was. In the age 14th obesity was’nt found. Boys have more prevalence of overweight. Using logistic regression model, we found that school children with normal BMI were protected with increased body height of acute lower back pain (β= -0.089, 95%CI, -9.730- -0.023, P< 0.049), and increased body height was protector of obese school children of acute upper back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001) and chronic lower back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001). Conclusion Schoolchildren with normal weight more often have had musculosceletal pain than those with overweight or obesity. This can be associated with intense physical growth period in height, especially. The assumption is that the increase in height changes the relationship between excessive BMI and musculoskeletal pain in children of school age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0212.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Education; effectiveness; intervention; food and nutrition education; knowledge; schoolchildren
Online: 9 September 2022 (07:43:19 CEST)
School-aged children may benefit from education interventions focused on healthy eating and physical activity to improve their quality of life. This article aims to review scientific evidence on food and nutrition education (FNE) in Spanish-speaking countries for the prevention of overweight and obesity in school-aged children (6-12 y). Articles were searched between April and August 2021. The searches were conducted using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and SciELO. The primary search for articles focused on the experience of FNE interventions in Spanish-speaking countries. Overall, 518 articles were found and 33 studies were eligible for data extraction. Forty-two percent of the studies had a focus on FNE and 64% were focused on describing the eating habits of schoolchildren. Nutritional assessments (anthropometric) were found frequently with 91% and 30% of the studies focused on physical activity. All interventions focused on preventing or reducing overweight and obesity in school-age children. Educational, cognitive, dietary, and physical activity practices were described, whit being educational the most frequent intervention. Interventions reported positive effects of FNE interventions to improve knowledge and practices of healthy lifestyles in school-age children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: prevention; road-traffic-accidents; education-health; schoolchildren; change-attitude
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:54:27 CET)
Introduction: Road traffic accidents are a real pandemic and incur expenses amounting to 1-2% of every country’s GDP. AESLEME (Association for the Study of Spinal Cord Injuries) – devoted to teaching road safety and health to prevent road accidents – has celebrated its 30th anniversary. AESLEME’s instructors are health workers and people with spinal cord injuries caused by road accidents: their presentations – teaching road safety and sharing information on irreversible injuries – are enhanced by personal stories that help schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on this matter. However, until now, we had not assessed how far this acquisition of knowledge had reached. Methods used: Two multiple-choice tests were given to each of the 8,106 students (12-14 years) who took part. Of the four possible answers, only one of them was correct. The first multiple-choice test was taken before the presentation and the second was taken one month later. Results: After assessing the answers, there was a change in the tendency of the number of correct answers before/after answers for the multiple-choice test, and the number of correct one´s rose one month after the presentation. This increase is statistically significant (p<0.01) and represents a national increase of 61% in the number of correct answers, although this varies from 8% to 278% depending on the region. Conclusions: The assessment, involving over 8,000 people, showed that there has been an improvement in road safety knowledge thanks to education provided by AESLEME’s instructors, and a statistically significant increase was obtained throughout Spain, with an average of 61% (confidence level 95: 53% and 64%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0220.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: younger schoolchildren; anxiety; psychocorrection; sociopsychological training; biological feedback; art-therapy
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:28:45 CET)
The purpose of our study is to determine the effectiveness of various types of psychocorrection measures: social and psychological training, a method of biological feedback and Sandplay for the indicators of childhood anxiety among younger schoolchildren. The study was conducted in the school of Magadan, North East of Russia (9-10 year old students, n = 43). We used a standardized method of Multidimensional Assessment of Child Anxiety which included 10 scales. The correction methods were used: socio-psychological training (SPT), biofeedback method (BFB), individual and group Sandplay. Students of group I (n = 12) participated only in the SPT. Students of group II (n = 11) participated in the SPT and underwent a course of training in self-regulation using the BFB method. In correction work with the students of group III (n = 20), the SPT, BFB, individual and group Sandplay were used. In group I, after the correction activities, a significant decrease in anxiety was observed in 3 of 10 scales (2, 6, 7; (p <0.05). In group II it was seen in 5 scales (1, 3, 6, 7, 8; p <0.05). In group III, a significant improvements took place in 7 scales (1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10; p <0.01–p <0.05). The present study has shown the different efficacy of applying the remedial techniques separately and in combination. The use of methods in the complex enhances the impact on the types of the child anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0244.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: motor competence; sedentary behavior; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; primary schoolchildren; accelerometer
Online: 11 October 2018 (17:10:00 CEST)
Children’s motor competence (MC) has declined in the past decades, while sedentary behavior (SB) has increased. This study examined the association between MC and physical activity (PA) levels among primary schoolchildren. Demographics, body height and weight, MC (Athletic Skills Track) and PA levels (ActiGraph, GT3X+) were assessed among 595 children (291 boys, mean age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.1). MC was standardized into five categories: from very low to very high. PA levels were classified into sedentary behavior (SB), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Mixed model analyses were conducted with PA levels as dependent variables and MC as the independent variable, while adjusting for age, gender, and BMI z-score on the individual level. Additional moderation analyses between covariates and MC and PA levels were also conducted. A negative association between MC and SB (β = -3.17) and a positive association between MC and MVPA (β =1.41) were found. The strength of both associations increased as children expressed lower or higher levels of MC. Increased age and being a girl were significant predictors of higher levels of SB and lower levels of MVPA. Non-overweight children spent significantly more minutes in MVPA compared with overweight children. No moderating effects of BMI, gender, and age were found on the association between MC and PA levels. MC is an important correlate of both SB and MVPA, particularly for children with very high or low MC. Developing and improving children’s MC may contribute to spending less time in SB and more time in MVPA, particularly for high-risk groups, i.e. children with low MC. Moreover, addressing MC development and PA promotion simultaneously might create positive feedback loops for both children’s MC and PA levels.