REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: peat; peat-based product; peat treatment; added-value products; environmentally friendly; homogeisation, pyrolysis; fulvic acid; humic acid; humic substances
Online: 18 October 2021 (11:46:20 CEST)
The present review is dedicated to using of peat on the example of fen peat in high added-value products and applications. Mainly, but not limited, last decade literature was analysed from the perspective of innovation potential of peat applications in environmental technologies on examples of studies from the Baltic Sea region. Paper covers a wide range of applications of peat products started from agriculture to medicine and cosmetics. A separate chapter is devoted to the deep-processed peat product - humic substances (humate, humic and fulvic salts and acids). Generalised dependence of product extraction rate and its properties, depending on the process parameters are provided. Widely are described applications of the humic sub-stance applications covering economic aspects, such as production costs. In the last chapter of the review are given recommendations for applications considering the most recent trends of peat-based product developments. This accumulated information could be useful for future production, development of new, environmentally friendly products and start-ups establishment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0106.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: sterile aggregates; remediation of waste water; peat; biochar
Online: 8 March 2019 (08:57:21 CET)
This paper investigates an alternative use of sterile aggregate materials which may arise from various construction applications in conjunction with other low-cost mineral raw materials to remediate the acid mine drainage phenomenon. This study is based on the combination of unprocessed mineral raw materials as well as on the basic concept of the cyclic economy where the conversion of a waste into a raw material for another application can be achieved. In this way, the value of mineral raw materials can be prolonged for as long as possible, waste generation and exploitation of natural resources are minimized and resources are kept as far as possible within the existing economy. In this study, an electrically continuous flow driven forced device proposed and demonstrated for the remediation of waste water in lab-scale by using certain mixes of mineral raw materials (serpentinite, andesite, magnesite, peat and biochar). Our results focus on the impact of the studied mineral raw materials and especially on their synergy on the water purification potential under continuous water flow operation. Using the proposed 7-day experimental electrically continuous flow driven forced device with the certain mixes of mineral raw materials, the increase of pH values from 3.00 to 6.82 as well as significant removal of Fe, Cu and Zn was achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0213.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: atmospheric pollution; Pb accumulation rate; peat geochemistry; Roman period; Pb isotopes
Online: 22 May 2018 (07:44:10 CEST)
Two peat cores from two bogs were used to reconstruct high–resolution changes in atmospheric Pb accumulation rate (Pb AR) in Belgium during the Roman period. The two records were compared to assess the reliability of peat cores as archives of atmospheric Pb deposition and to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these issues we analyze Pb concentration and isotopes, using ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS in two peat sections, spanning 1000 yr each. Lead concentrations in the two cores range from 0.1 to 60 μg g−1, with the maxima between 15 and 60 μg g−1. The average natural background of Pb AR was 0.005± 0.002 mg m-2 yr-1 and the maximum ranges from 0.7 to 1.2 mg m-2 yr-1 between 50 BC and AD 215. The highest Pb AR exceed the pre-Roman period values by a factor of 25-30. Pb isotopic composition indicates that mining and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the Roman period. The Pb AR and chronologies in the Belgian peat cores are consistent with those reported for other continental archives as lake sediments, peat and ice cores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0019.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: sorption; kinetics; peat; cenosphere; oil sorption; Weber-Morris; diffusion model; granules; bio-composite
Online: 1 February 2022 (17:09:59 CET)
Among the various methods for collecting oil spills and oil products, including from the water surface, one of the most effective is the use of sorbents. In this work, three-component bio-based composite granular adsorbents were produced and studied for oil products pollution collection. A bio-based binder made of peat, devulcanised crumb rubber from used tyres, and part fly ash as cenospheres were used for absorbent production. The structure, surface morphology, porosity, mechanical properties, and sorption kinetics of the obtained samples were studied. Composite hydrophobicity and sorption capacity to oil products such as diesel fuel (DF) and motor oil (MO) were determined. The obtained pellets are characterised by a sufficiently pronounced ability to absorb oil products such as DF. As the amount of CR in the granules increases, the diesel absorption capacity increases significantly. The case of 30-70-0 is almost 3 times higher than the granules from homogenised peat. The increase in q is due to two factors: pronounced surface hydrophobicity of the samples (Θ = 152°) and a heterogeneous porous granule structure. The presence of the cenosphere in the biocomposite reduces its surface hydrophobicity while increasing the diesel absorption capacity. Relatively rapid realisation of the maximum saturation by the MO was noted. In common, the designed absorbent shows up to 0.7 g·g-1 sorption capacity for MO and up to 1.55 g·g-1 sorption capacity for diesel. A possible mechanism of DF absorption and the limiting stages of the process approximated for different kinetic models are discussed. The Weber-Morris diffusion model is used to primarily distinguish the limiting effect of external and internal diffusion of adsorbate on the absorption process
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0358.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: biodestruction, soil constructions, sustainability, polymers, synthetic hydrogels, peat, CO2 emission, water-retention, modeling.
Online: 22 June 2018 (14:20:10 CEST)
Decomposition of natural and synthetic polymeric materials (peat, humates, biochar, strongly swelling hydrogels and other soil conditioners) in a biologically- and chemically- active soil environment inevitably leads to their degradation and ability to improve the structure, water-retention, absorptive capacity and actual fertility of artificial soil constructions in urbanized ecosystems and agro landscapes (constructozems). Quantitative assessment of the biodegradation process using field and laboratory incubation experiments, as well as mathematical modeling, showed the possibility of significant (up to 30-50% per year) losses of organic matter of constructozems and a corresponding deterioration in their quality. Incubation experiments with the analysis of carbon dioxide emission for polymeric materials under given thermodynamic conditions allow to estimate the potential rates of their decomposition (half-life) and their dependence on the dose of inhibitors of microbial activity. Special nomographs provide an opportunity to determine the optimum depth of the arrangement of organic components in soil constructions to ensure their stable functioning during a fixed operating time in urban conditions. The results of the study are useful for geo-engineers and landscaping practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0217.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: crumb rubber; devulcanised crumb rubber; cenosphere; peat; homogenisation; biocomposite; hybrid material; bio-binder; oil absorption
Online: 5 November 2020 (14:54:57 CET)
The utilisation of the industrial residual products to create new value-added materials and to reduce footprint is a modern challenge of science and industry. Development of the new multifunctional and bio-based composites is an excellent opportunity for complex utilisation of industrial residual products. The study describes the preparation and characterisation of the three-phases bio-based composites. The main components are bio-based binder made of peat, devulcanised crumb rubber (DCR) from used tires and part of the fly ash the cenosphere (CS). Three-phase composite prepared in the form of a block for investigation of the mechanical properties and density and a form of granules for determination of the water and oil products sorption was investigated. This work investigated the dependence of the properties on the main component DCR and CS fraction. Is found, that maximum compression strength (in block form) observed for composition without CS and DCR addition - 79.3 MPa, the second highest value of compression strength is 11.2 MPa for composition with 27.3 wt% of CS. For compositions with bio binder content from 17.4 to 55.8 wt% and with DCR contents in range from 11.0 to 62.0 wt% compression strength is in range 1.1 to 2.0 MPa. Liquid sorption analysis (water and diesel) showed that the maximum saturation of liquids in both cases is set after 35 minutes and ranges from 1.05 to 1.4 g·g -1 for water and 0.77 to 1.25 g·g-1 for diesel. It was noted that 90% of the maximum saturation with diesel fuel comes after 10 minutes and for water after 35 minutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0601.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: sustainable composites; crubm rubber; devulcanised crumb rubber; cenosphere; peat; biocomposite; hybrid material; bio-binder; oil spill
Online: 23 December 2020 (17:44:25 CET)
The utilisation of the industrial residual products to develop new value-added materials and to reduce footprint is one of the critical challenges of science and industry. Development of the new multifunctional and bio-based composites materials is an excellent opportunity for the effective utilisation of industrial residual products. Keeping the different issues in mind, in this work, we describe the manufacturing and characterisation of the three-phases bio-based composites. The key components are bio-based binder made of peat, devulcanised crumb rubber (DCR) from used tires and part of the fly ash, i.e. the cenosphere (CS). The three-phase composite prepared in the form of a block were investigated for their mechanical properties and density. The three-phase composite was prepared in the form a) of a block were investigated for their mechanical properties, and density and b) a form of granules for determination of the water and oil products sorption were investigated. We have also investigated the dependence of the properties on the DCR and CS fraction. It has been found, that maximum compression strength (in block form) observed for composition without CS and DCR addition was- 79.3 MPa, while the second-highest value of compression strength is 11.2 MPa for composition with 27.3 wt% of CS. For compositions with bio binder content from 17.4 to 55.8 wt% and with DCR contents in range from 11.0 to 62.0 wt%, the compression strength is in the range from 1.1 to 2.0 MPa. Liquid sorption analysis (water and diesel) showed that the maximum saturation of liquids in both cases is set after 35 minutes and ranges from 1.05 to 1.4 g·g -1 for water and 0.77 to 1.25 g·g-1 for diesel. It was noted that 90% of the maximum saturation with diesel fuel comes after 10 minutes and for water after 35 minutes.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agricultural soils; carbon dioxide (CO2), energy; forests; methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nutrient leaching; peat; traffic
Online: 6 November 2020 (17:19:26 CET)
rdinary people and political leaders must know the sources of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global climate change before they have ability to make decisions to reduce emissions and increase sinks of these gases. These people must, however, understand where greenhouse gas emissions are formed and how reductions can be made: they must understand where carbon dioxide sinks are and how to preserve or increase these sinks. North Savo is the example used in this work to describe the present emissions and sinks. There are proposals on what should and could be done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by traffic, heating, forests and agriculture. There are possibilities of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in traffic and heating in spite of the fact that the province has a low population density with long distances between homes and workplaces and schools, and a cold climate. We believe that research will also find solutions for reducing greenhouse gases and protecting waters, which are used for recreational purposes and for raw water of drinking water in many places. Luckily forests cover large areas of North Savo and their growth is an important carbon dioxide sink. In addition, forest soils serve as a valuable storage of carbon. Besides carbon dioxide emissions, emissions of nitrous oxide and methane must also be considered since they are more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide and land use can thus influence these gas emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0175.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: peat; electrical conductivity; magnetic susceptibility; K-means clustering; loss on ignition (LOI); organic soils; mineral soils; Indonesia
Online: 27 February 2018 (05:21:36 CET)
Various type of soils have been identified based on their electrical and magnetic properties, especially with regards to peat soils. Peat soils are commonly considered as partly decomposed vegetation. In this study, electrical and magnetic properties have been used in K-means clustering to identify layers of peat soils. K-means clustering is a partitioning method that treats observations in the data. Data cores were obtained at every centimeter and examined for their electrical conductivity (σ) and magnetic susceptibility (χm) properties. A 291 cm core was obtained at Tegal Arum Village in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The K-means clustering results indicate two different layers at 148 cm, and this is supported by loss on ignition (LOI) measurements. In the first layers, a 87.65% LOI was found associated with peat soils (above 248 cm). Whereas, in the second layers, there was a 26.11% LOI associated with mineral soils (below 248 cm). The results of this study using K-means clustering can be used to delineate soil layers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Hydropower; Wind, Solar; Geothermal; Firewood; Nuclear; Petroleum; Peat; Non-solid biomass; Solid biomass; Energy systems; Human energy; Animal energy
Online: 28 February 2022 (12:25:14 CET)
We live in the world that is completely entangled on energy and thus, Humankind can no longer do without it, power. With electricity being the main form of energy today, this has increased the complexity of our life today. In Uganda, electricity generation is mainly through hydropower which put the country in the bottleneck of over dependence on one source of energy. Yet, there are many energy systems out there that country can diversify its electricity generation. Therefore, the need to understand, the level of development and utilization of various energy systems has been the underlying question for this present study. Comprehensive literature survey was conducted from the electronic databases including ScienceDirect, Wiley, Sage, Scopus, Taylor & Francis, and Google Scholar. The publications in form of reports, conference papers, working papers, discussion papers, journal articles, book sections and textbooks were considered in this study. In total, 11 energy systems including human and animal energy, solid biomass (firewood), hydropower, wind, geothermal, solar, nuclear, peat, coal, petroleum, and non-solid biomass (methanol, hydrogen, ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas) are described. The current and the future development and utilization of these energy systems has been described. The challenges with their development and utilization were elaborated and the solution the challenges were presented. The hydropower with River Nile being the main river for large hydropower plant construction is the dominance energy system in Uganda. Nuclear energy will be the salvation for the country’s electric energy supply in the near future. Therefore, Uganda needs to bet big on nuclear energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0308.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Olive pruning; compost; recycling; Capsicum annuum L.; soil organic carbon (SOC); soil organic matter (SOM); olive young tree; Olea europaea L.; peat replacement.
Online: 20 January 2022 (14:26:24 CET)
To substitute of conventional manure and peat with alternatives sourcing from environmental conservation concerns, several promising alternatives has been attracting scientific parties’ interest, recently. However, among them compost perform the best, mostly and support carbon sequestration and mitigation against climate change. The article describes the made locally produced 70% in volume olive pruning branches compost (COMP) performance in two trials as an organic amendment in pepper production and an olive sapling substrate during 2019-2021 organic management in Turkey. The application of COMP to pepper trial conducted using factorial randomised block design with 4 replications and 6 treatments increased total organic matter and soil organic carbon, significantly (p<0.05) as compared to non-used plots in two locations. The olive sapling trial was conducted using a randomised plot design with 4 replications and 4 treatments. After the 12 months of growth, compost had the largest architecture rooted plants significantly different (p<0.05). Fresh volume (cm3) of COMP used saplings were obtained 35% less than 40% peat treatment, significantly (p<0.05) while 6th month measurement was found as 40%. It is concluded that to enhance circular economy recycling and composting olive pruning branches is lucrative for the country to reduce external input usage in organic horticultural production.