REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Deep Learning; 3D Instance Segmentation; Datasets
Online: 12 November 2021 (14:56:14 CET)
Beyond semantic segmentation,3D instance segmentation(a process to delineate objects of interest and also classifying the objects into a set of categories) is gaining more and more interest among researchers since numerous computer vision applications need accurate segmentation processes(autonomous driving, indoor navigation, and even virtual or augmented reality systems…) This paper gives an overview and a technical comparison of the existing deep learning architectures in handling unstructured Euclidean data for the rapidly developing 3D instance segmentation. First, the authors divide the 3D point clouds based instance segmentation techniques into two major categories which are proposal based methods and proposal free methods. Then, they also introduce and compare the most used datasets with regard to 3D instance segmentation. Furthermore, they compare and analyze these techniques performance (speed, accuracy, response to noise…). Finally, this paper provides a review of the possible future directions of deep learning for 3D sensor-based information and provides insight into the most promising areas for prospective research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0035.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: landslide; classifier ensemble; instance based learning; Rotation Forest; GIS; Vietnam
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:25:12 CEST)
This study proposes a novel hybrid machine learning approach for modeling of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. The proposed approach is a combination of an instance-based learning algorithm (k-NN) and Rotation Forest (RF), state of the art machine techniques that have seldom explored for landslide modeling. The Lang Son city area (Vietnam) is selected as a case study. For this purpose, a spatial database for the study area was constructed, and then, was used to build and evaluate the hybrid model. Performance of the model was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), area under the ROC curve (AUC), success rate and prediction rate, and several statistical evaluation metrics. The results showed that the model has high performance with both the training data (AUC = 0.948) and the validation data (AUC = 0.848). The results were compared with those obtained from soft computing techniques i.e. Random Forest, J48 Decision Trees, and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks. Overall, the performance of the proposed model is better than those obtained from the above methods. Therefore, the proposed model is a promising tool for landslide modeling. The research result can be highly useful for land use planning and management in landslide prone areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0154.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; multiple instance learning; weakly supervised learning; demography; socioeconomic analysis; google street view
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:53:26 CEST)
(1) Background: Evidence-based policymaking requires data about the local population's socioeconomic status (SES) at detailed geographical level, however, such information is often not available, or is too expensive to acquire. Researchers have proposed solutions to estimate SES indicators by analyzing Google Street View images, however, these methods are also resource-intensive, since they require large volumes of manually labeled training data. (2) Methods: We propose a methodology for automatically computing surrogate variables of SES indicators using street images of parked cars and deep multiple instance learning. Our approach does not require any manually created labels, apart from data already available by statistical authorities, while the entire pipeline for image acquisition, parked car detection, car classification, and surrogate variable computation is fully automated. The proposed surrogate variables are then used in linear regression models to estimate the target SES indicators. (3) Results: We implement and evaluate a model based on the proposed surrogate variable at 30 municipalities of varying SES in Greece. Our model has $R^2=0.76$ and a correlation coefficient of $0.874$ with the true unemployment rate, while it achieves a mean absolute percentage error of $0.089$ and mean absolute error of $1.87$ on a held-out test set. Similar results are also obtained for other socioeconomic indicators, related to education level and occupational prestige. (4) Conclusions: The proposed methodology can be used to estimate SES indicators at the local level automatically, using images of parked cars detected via Google Street View, without the need for any manual labeling effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0331.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Drug-Target Binding Affinity; Multi-Instance Learning; Transformer
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:58:34 CEST)
The prediction of drug-target interactions plays a fundamental role in facilitating drug discovery, where the goal is to find prospective drug candidates. With the increase in the number of drug-protein interactions, machine learning techniques, especially deep learning methods, have become applicable for drug-target interaction discovery because they significantly reduce the required experimental workload. In this paper, we present a spontaneous formulation of the drug-target interaction prediction problem as an instance of multi-instance learning. We address the problem in three stages, first organizing given drug and target sequences into instances via a private-public mechanism, then identifying the predicted scores of all instances in the same bag, and finally combining all the predicted scores as the output prediction. A comprehensive evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0641.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: foraminifera; instance segmentation; object detection; deep learning
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:33:54 CEST)
Foraminifera are single-celled marine organisms that construct shells that remain as fossils in the marine sediments. Classifying and counting these fossils are important in e.g. paleo-oceanographic and -climatological research. However, the identification and counting process has been performed manually since the 1800s and is laborious and time-consuming. In this work, we present a deep learning-based instance segmentation model for classifying, detecting, and segmenting microscopic foraminifera. Our model is based on the Mask R-CNN architecture, using model weight parameters that have learned on the COCO detection dataset. We use a fine-tuning approach to adapt the parameters on a novel object detection dataset of more than 7000 microscopic foraminifera and sediment grains. The model achieves a (COCO-style) average precision of 0.78±0.00 on the classification and detection task, and 0.80±0.00 on the segmentation task. When the model is evaluated without challenging sediment grain images, the average precision for both tasks increases to 0.84±0.00 and 0.86±0.00, respectively. Prediction results are analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively and discussed. Based on our findings we propose several directions for future work, and conclude that our proposed model is an important step towards automating the identification and counting of microscopic foraminifera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0475.v3
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Instance segmentation; Classification; Vehicle make classification; Mosaic-tiled augmentation
Online: 30 January 2023 (08:58:50 CET)
Vehicle identification is an important task in traffic monitoring because it allows for efficient inference and provides a cause for action. Vehicle classification via deep learning and other approaches such as segmentation is a critical tool for re-identification. In this paper, instance segmentation is used to identify vehicle makes with license plate detection, allowing for better unique vehicle recognition for re-identification. A dataset is annotated and modified, for example, by segmenting it with polygonal bounding boxes that capture the vehicle's unique frontal features. In addition, license plate localization is performed. The results showed improved classification as well as a high mAP for the dataset when compared to previous approaches based on CNN and deformed CNN. Furthermore, a deep residual network and fully connected layer-based classification were utilized as the backbone for feature representation. Instance segmentation detects objects by segmenting and classifying regions of interest. The imbalance in the dataset is resolved using a mosaic-tiled approach, which produces greater precision than other approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0181.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks; Gradient Descent; Back Propagation; Instance Elimination; Speed up; Batch Size
Online: 7 August 2020 (09:29:54 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence is dominated by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Currently, the Batch Gradient Descent (BGD) is the only solution to train ANN weights when dealing with large datasets. In this article, a modification to the BGD is proposed which significantly reduces the training time and improves the convergence. The modification, called Instance Eliminating Back Propagation (IEBP), eliminates correctly-predicted-instances from the Back Propagation. The speedup is due to the elimination of unnecessary matrix multiplication operations from the Back Propagation. The proposed modification does not add any training hyperparameter to the existing ones and reduces the memory consumption during the training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0466.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Alternative Splicing; RNA-Seq; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Recommender Systems; Multiple Instance Learning; mRNA Isoforms; Gene Ontology
Online: 20 July 2020 (10:53:23 CEST)
Multiple mRNA isoforms of the same gene are produced via alternative splicing, a biological mechanism that regulates protein diversity while maintaining genome size. Alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms of the same gene may sometimes have very similar sequence, but they can have significantly diverse effects on cellular function and regulation. The products of alternative splicing have important and diverse functional roles, such as response to environmental stress, regulation of gene expression, human heritable and plant diseases. The mRNA isoforms of the same gene, such as the apoptosis associated CASP3 gene, can have dramatically different functions. The shorter mRNA isoform product CASP3-S inhibits apoptosis, while the longer CASP3-L mRNA isoform promotes apoptosis. Despite the functional importance of mRNA isoforms, very little has been done to annotate their functions. The recent years have however seen the development of several computational methods aimed at predicting mRNA isoform level biological functions. These methods use a wide array of proteo-genomic data to develop machine learning-based mRNA isoform function prediction tools. In this review, we discuss the computational methods developed for predicting the biological function at the individual mRNA isoform level.