REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: insight problem-solving; Aha! Moment; pupillometry; Gestalt; perception; attention; creativity
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:09:14 CEST)
The Gestalt psychologists’ theory of insight problem-solving was based on a direct parallelism between perceptual experience and higher-order forms of cognition (e.g., problem-solving). Simi-larly to the sudden recognition of an ambiguous figure, they contended that problem-solving in-volves a restructuring of one's initial representation of the problem’s elements, leading to a sud-den leap of understanding phenomenologically indexed by the "Aha!" feeling. Over the last centu-ry, different scholars discussed the validity of the Gestalt psychologists’ perspective foremost us-ing the behavioral measures available at the time. However, in the last 2 decades, scientists gained a deeper understanding of insight problem-solving due to the advancements in cognitive neuroscience. This review aims to provide a retrospective reading of Gestalt theory based on the knowledge accrued by adopting novel paradigms and investigating their neurophysiological correlates. Among several key points that the Gestalt psychologists underscored, we focus specif-ically on the role of the visual system in marking a discrete switch of knowledge into awareness, as well as the perceptual experience and the holistic standpoints. While the main goal of this paper is to read the previous theory in light of new evidence, we also hope to initiate an academic dis-cussion and encourage further research about the points we raise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: CVD rehabilitation; Local muscular endurance exercises; Exercise-based rehabilitation; Deep Learning; AlexNet; CNN; SVM; kNN; RF; MLP; PCA; multi-class classification; INSIGHT-LME dataset
Online: 26 July 2020 (15:21:08 CEST)
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation requires patients to perform a set of certain prescribed exercises a specific number of times. Local muscular endurance (LME) exercises are an important part of the rehabilitation program. Automatic exercise recognition and repetition counting, from wearable sensor data is an important technology to enable patients to perform exercises independently in remote settings, e.g. their own home. In this paper we first report on a comparison of traditional approaches to exercise recognition and repetition counting, corresponding to supervised machine learning and peak detection from inertial sensing signals respectively, with more recent machine learning approaches, specifically Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). We investigated two different types of CNN: one using the AlexNet architecture, the other using time-series array. We found that the performance of CNN based approaches were better than the traditional approaches. For exercise recognition task, we found that the AlexNet based single CNN model outperformed other methods with an overall 97.18% F1-score measure. For exercise repetition counting , again the AlexNet architecture based single CNN model outperformed other methods by correctly counting repetitions in 90% of the performed exercise sets within an error of ±1. To the best of our knowledge, our approach of using a single CNN method for both recognition and repetition counting is novel. In addition to reporting our findings, we also make the dataset we created, the INSIGHT-LME dataset, publicly available to encourage further research.