ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0153.v3
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:22:16 CEST)
Background: Severe hypoglycemia is defined as low blood glucose levels that requires another person to be treated. Severe hypoglycemia is an emergency and is a complication that can occur in people taking insulin and some anti-diabetic drugs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with hospitalization. Methods: We performed a retrospective study based on the clinical records of adults with severe hypoglycemia who were admitted consecutively to the Emergency Department (ED) of the Carlo Poma Hospital from January 2021 to December 2021. Results: Overall, 50 patients were identified and most of these were elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. They were treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs such as sulfonylureas or glinides (42%), insulin (46%) or both (6%). Hospitalization rates and in-hospital deaths occurred in 62% and in 4%, respectively. No risk factors were statistically significant correlated with hospitalization. The frailty of the elderly patients and their comorbidities were often the reason of hospitalization, rather than the episode of severe hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In our study, episodes of severe hypoglycemia can be a sign of the frailty of elderly diabetic patients and poor home care, who often require hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: astrocytes; hypoglycemia; diabetes mellitus, type 1; mitochondria; glycemic control; hypothalamus; glutamic acid.
Online: 18 August 2022 (14:24:35 CEST)
Recurrent hypoglycaemia, a common side-effect of insulin therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes, induces impaired glucose-sensing. Better understanding of how astrocytes, important non-neuronal cells in the brain, function in low glucose environments may improve our understanding of recurrent hypoglycaemia-induced defective counterregulation. Astrocytes contribute to glutamatergic signalling, which is required for hypoglycaemia counterregulation and is impaired by recurrent insulin-induced hypoglcyaemia. This study examined the glutamate response of astrocytes when challenged with acute and recurrent low glucose (RLG) exposure. The metabolic responses of cortical (CRTAS) and hypothalamic (HTAS) primary rat astrocytes were measured in acute and recurrent low glucose using extracellular flux analyses. RLG caused mitochondrial adaptations in both HTAS and CRTAS, many of which were attenuated by glutamate exposure during low glucose treatments. We observed an increase in capacity of HTAS to metabolise glutamine after RLG exposure. Demonstrating astrocytic heterogeneity in the response to LG, CRTAS increased cellular acidification, a marker of glycolysis in LG, whereas this decreased in HTAS. The directional change in intracellular Ca2+ levels of each cell type, correlated with the change in extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) during LG. Further examination of glutamate-induced Ca2+ responses in low glucose treated CRTAS and HTAS identified sub-populations of glucose-excited- and glucose-inhibited-like cells with differing responses to glutamate. Lastly, release of the gliotransmitter ATP by HTAS was elevated by RLG, both with and without concurrent glutamate exposure. Therefore, hypothalamic astrocytes adapt to RLG by increasing glutamate uptake and oxidation in a manner that attenuates RLG-induced mitochondrial adaptations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); older people; frailty; antidiabetic drugs; comprehensive geriatric assessment; therapeutic targets; hypoglycemia.
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:07:51 CEST)
Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a chronic condition with increasing prevalence worldwide among the older population. T2DM condition increases the risk of micro and macro-vascular complications as well as the risk of geriatric syndromes as falls, fractures and cognitive impairment. The management of T2DM in the older population represents a challenge for the cli-nician, and a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment should always be prioritized, in order to tailor the glycate haemoglobin target according to functional and cognitive status comorbidities, life ex-pectancy and type of therapy. According to the most recent guidelines, older adults with T2DM should be cathegorized in three groups: healthy patients with good functional status, patients with complications and reduced functionality and patients at the end of life; for each group the target for the glycemic control is different, also according to the type of treatment drug. The therapeutic ap-proach should always begin with lifestyle changes; after that, several lines of therapies are available, with different mechanism of action and potential effect other than glucose level reduction. Partic-ular interest is growing around sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, due to their effect on the cardiovascular system. In this review we evaluate the therapeutic options available for the treat-ment of older diabetic patients, to ensure a correct treatment approach
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0456.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Real-time continuous glucose monitoring; Intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring; Type 1 diabetes; Glucose variability; Hypoglycemia; Insulin resistance
Online: 20 July 2021 (14:58:11 CEST)
The switch from intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) to real-time (rt) CGM could improve glycemic management in suboptimal controlled type 1 diabetes patients, but long-term study is lacking. We evaluated retrospectively the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) in such patients after switching from Free Style libre 1 (FSL1) to Dexcom G4 (DG4) over 1 year. Patients (n=21, 43±15 years, BMI 25±5, HbA1c 8.1±1.0%) had severe hypoglycemia and/or HbA1c≥8%. AGP metrics (time-in-range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL, time-below-range (TBR)<70 mg/dL or <54 mg/dL, glucose coefficient of variation (%CV), time-above-range (TAR) >180 mg/dL or >250 mg/dL, glucose management indicator (GMI), average glucose) were collected the last 3 months of FSL1 use (M0) and of DG4 for 3, 6 (M6) and 12 (M12) months of use. Values were means ± standard deviation or medians [Q1;Q3]. At M12 versus M0, the higher TIR (50±17 vs. 45±16, P=0.036), and lower TBR<70 mg/dL (2.5 [1.6;5.5] vs. 7.0 [4.5;12.5], P=0.0007), TBR<54 mg/dL (0.7 [0.4;0.8] vs. 2.3 [0.8;7.0], P=0.007) and %CV (39±5 vs. 45±8, P=0.0009), evidenced a long-term effectiveness of the switch. Compared to M6, TBR<70mg/dL decreased, %CV remained stable, while the improvement on hyperglycemia exposure decreased (higher GMI, TAR and average glucose). This switch was a relevant therapeutic option, though a loss of benefit on hyperglycemia stressed the need for optimized management of threshold alarms. Nevertheless, few patients attained the recommended values for AGP metrics, and the reasons why some patients are “responders” vs “non-responders” warrant to be investigated.