REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0171.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: animal welfare legislation; animal cruelty; law enforcement; Australia; enforcement gap
Online: 12 December 2019 (10:07:56 CET)
Enforcement of animal welfare statutes are the primary protection given for the maintenance of animal welfare and prevention of cruelty. It is speculated that animal law enforcement in Australia has a number of weakness in the enforcement model. These weaknesses create a gap between the goals of animal law enforcement and the reality of the animal law justice system. This gap is defined as the ‘enforcement gap’. This paper identifies and investigates the causes of this gap. The hypothesized causes discussed are (1) the impact the public can have on reporting animal cruelty, (2) the reliance on charitable organizations as enforcement bodies, (3) the inconsistencies in animal welfare legislation, and (4) the role of the sentencing courts. Thus, the causes of the enforcement gap are multifactorial; derived from all stages of the enforcement process. Further research is needed to investigate the concepts raised in this paper. However, it is likely that a combination of structural change to enforcement agencies, legislative reform and public education is required to reduce the enforcement gap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: IoT; SmartCity; Law Enforcement
Online: 2 October 2020 (08:45:55 CEST)
Information Technology (IT) has become an essential part of our lives and due to the emergence of Internet-of-Things (IoT), technology has encompassed a majority of things that humans rely on in their daily lives. Further, as IT becomes more relevant in daily lives, the need for IT to serve public emergency services has become more important. However, due to the infancy status of IoT, there is a need for a data consortium that would prove to be best used in servicing policing in a technological driven society. This paper will discuss the plausibility of creating a universal format for use in carrying out public services, such as emergency response by the police and regular law maintenance. In this research we will discuss what the police requires in their line-of-duty and how smart devices can be used to satisfy those needs. A data formatting framework is developed and demonstrated, with the goal of showing what can be done to unifying data from smart city sensors.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0219.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: dark web; cybercrime; law enforcement
Online: 5 November 2020 (16:00:45 CET)
The internet can broadly be divided into three parts: surface, deep and dark among which the latter offers anonymity to its users and hosts . Deep Web refers to an encrypted network that is not detected on search engine like Google etc. Users must use Tor to visit sites on the dark web . Ninety six percent of the web is considered as deep web because it is hidden. It is like an iceberg, in that, people can just see a small portion above the surface, while the largest part is hidden under the sea [3, 4, and 5]. Basic methods of graph theory and data mining, that deals with social networks analysis can be comprehensively used to understand and learn Deep Web and detect cyber threats . Since the internet is rapidly evolving and it is nearly impossible to censor the deep web, there is a need to develop standard mechanism and tools to monitor it. In this proposed study, our focus will be to develop standard research mechanism to understand the Deep Web which will support the researchers, academicians and law enforcement agencies to strengthen the social stability and ensure peace locally & globally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: light armour; personal protective equipment; load; law enforcement; occupational tasks
Online: 24 April 2018 (09:47:48 CEST)
Policing duties may inherently be dangerous due to stab, blunt trauma and ballistic threats. The addition of individual light armour vests (ILAVs) has been suggested as a means to protect officers. However, the addition of the extra load of the ILAV may affect officer ability to conduct occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing any of 3 different ILAVs (ILAV A, ILAV B, & ILAV C) affected occupational task performance when compared to that in normal station wear. A prospective, within-subjects repeated measures design was employed, using a counterbalanced randomization in which each ILAV was worn for an entire day while officers completed a variety of occupationally relevant tasks. These tasks included a victim drag, car exit and 5 meter sprint, step down and marksmanship task. Results showed that performance in each task did not vary between any of the ILAV or normal station wear conditions. There was less variability in the marksmanship task with ILAV B, however. The results suggest that none of the ILAVs used in this study were heavy enough to significantly affect task performance in the assessed tasks when compared to wearing normal station wear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0290.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: host-virus interactions; tissue-specific model; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral targets; flux balance analysis; flux variability analysis; reaction knockout; host-derived enforcement; metabolic modeling; virus mutations; software engineering; Python
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:50:23 CET)
COVID-19 is one of the deadliest respiratory diseases, and its emergence caught the pharmaceutical industry off guard. While vaccines have been rapidly developed, treatment options for infected people remain scarce, and COVID-19 poses a substantial global threat. This study presents a novel workflow to predict robust druggable targets against emerging RNA viruses using metabolic networks and information of the viral structure and its genome sequence. For this purpose, we implemented pymCADRE and PREDICATE to create tissue-specific metabolic models, construct viral biomass functions and predict host-based antiviral targets from more than one genome. We observed that pymCADRE reduces the computational time of flux variability analysis for internal optimizations. We applied these tools to create a new metabolic network of primary bronchial epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and identified enzymatic reactions with inhibitory effects. The most promising reported targets were from the purine metabolism, while targeting the pyrimidine and carbohydrate metabolisms seemed to be promising approaches to enhance viral inhibition. Finally, we computationally tested the robustness of our targets in all known variants of concern, verifying our targets’ inhibitory effects. Since laboratory tests are time-consuming and involve complex readouts to track processes, our workflow focuses on metabolic fluxes within infected cells and is applicable for rapid hypothesis-driven identification of potentially exploitable antivirals concerning various viruses and host cell types.