ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building information modeling; industry foundation classes; internet of things; smart campus; environmental sensors; Dynamo
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:29:54 CEST)
Building information modeling (BIM) is the digital representation of physical and functional characteristics (such as geometry, spatial relationship, and geographic information) of a facility to support decisions during its life cycle. BIM has been extended beyond 3D geometrical representations in recent years, and now includes time as a fourth dimension and cost as a fifth dimension, as well as such other applications as virtual reality and augmented reality. The Internet of Things (IoT) has been increasingly applied in various products (smart homes, wearables) to enhance work productivity, living comfort, and entertainment. However, research addressing the integration of these two technologies (BIM and IoT) is still very limited, and has focused exclusively on the automatic transmission of sensor information to BIM models. This paper describes an attempt to represent and visualize sensor data in BIM with multiple perspectives in order to support complex decisions requiring interdisciplinary information. The study uses a university campus as an example and includes several scenarios, such as an auditorium with a dispersed audience and energy saving options for rooms with different functions (mechanical/electric equipment, classrooms, and laboratory). This paper also discusses the design of a common platform allowing communication among sensors with different protocols (Arduino, Raspberry Pi), the use of Dynamo to accept sensor data as input and automatically redraw visualized information in BIM, and how visualization may help in making energy-saving management decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: multi-objective; optimisation; revit; dynamo; BIM; window design; window type; window position; window-to-wall ratio
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:10:02 CEST)
Windows account for a significant proportion of the total energy lost in buildings. The interaction of window type, Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR) scheduled and window placement height would influence the natural lighting and heat transfer through windows. This is a pressing issue for non-tropical regions considering their high emissions and distinct climatic characteristics. A limitation exists in the adoption of common simulation-based optimisation approaches in the literature, which are hardly accessible to practitioners. This article develops a numerical-based window design optimisation model using a common Building Information Modelling (BIM) platform adopted throughout the industry, focusing on non-tropical regions of Australia. Three objective functions are proposed; the first objective is to maximize the available daylight, and the other two emphasize on the undesirable heat transfer through windows in summer and winter respectively. The developed model is tested on a case study located in Sydney, Australia, and a set of Pareto-optimum solutions is obtained. Through the use of the proposed model, energy savings of up to 16.43% are achieved. Key findings on the case example indicate that leveraging winter heat gain to reduce annual energy consumption should not be the top priority when designing windows for Sydney.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0108.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC); Prompt Penetration of Magnetospheric Convection Electric Field; Disturbance Dynamo Electric Field (DDEF); DP2; Ddyn
Online: 3 October 2023 (04:36:00 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of geomagnetic storms that occurred on June 8, 22-23, and 25, 2015, on the ionosphere in the low-latitude and equatorial regions of Brazil. By examining various data sources, such as solar wind parameters from the ACE satellite, GPS vertical total electron content (VTEC), magnetometer data, and the SAMI2 model, we aimed to simulate the effects of storms on the ionosphere in these regions. Two methods were employed to separate DP2 and Disturbance dynamo (Ddyn) from the ionospheric disturbance current (Diono). Our analysis revealed a positive (negative) ionospheric storm in the VTEC during the main phase (recovery) of the June 22-23 and 25 storms. This observation can be attributed to the combined impact of the eastward prompt penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field (westward disturbance dynamo electric field) and changes in the storm-time thermospheric [O]/[N_2] ratio based on the GUVI satellite imagery. Notably, the westward disturbance dynamo exhibited a significant amplitude on June 23 in Belem. The amplitude of the D_dyn at Belem (dip lat: - 0.47˚) was greater than that at Alta Floresta (dip lat: - 3.75˚) due to intensified cowling conductivity in Belem. Furthermore, we found that the SAMI2 model provided more accurate results when we replaced the default ExB drift with the vertical drift calculated from the ground-based magnetometer, enabling us to simulate the effect of the westward DDEF on VTEC during daytime.