ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0196.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: biochar; dryland; residue; nitrogen fertilizer; straw; wheat productivity
Online: 8 February 2021 (12:04:21 CET)
Water and nutrients shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water and nutrient conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, experimental work included the application of straw, biochar and N fertilizer. The straw and biochar were applied alone or combined with N fertilizer (0 and 100 kg N ha-1). Application of biochar and straw in combination with N fertilizer caused a reduction in mean soil temperature by an average of 20.05% and 18.10% relative to soils without carbon. Biochar and straw– amended soils significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil moisture content by 11.04% and 13.68% compared to no carbon treatments. Statistically comparable temperatures and moisture were recorded for both straw and biochar treated plots. Both biochar and straw treated soils produced the lowest bulk density (0–5 cm) at 1.15 g cm–3, and no carbon soils the highest at 1.20 g cm–3. The improved soil quality translated into higher biomass in the biochar (1906 kg ha–1) and biomass (1643 kg ha–1) and soils without carbon the lowest at 1553 kg ha–1. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two residue treated soils allow us to conclude that combined application of biochar and straw at the rate used in this study can be used as an effective farming model in alleviating water and nutrient shortage in semiarid environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0513.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: dryland wheat; subsoiling; sowing date; nitrogen accumulation; nitrogen translocation; yield
Online: 21 November 2018 (04:51:17 CET)
Dryland winter wheat in Loess Plateau is facing yield reduction due to shortage of soil moisture and delayed sowing time. Field experiment was conducted at Loess Plateau in Shanxi Province, China from 2012 to 2014, to study the effect of subsoiling and conventional tillage and different sowing dates on the soil water storage and contribution of N accumulation and remobilization to yield of winter wheat. The results showed that subsoiling significantly improved the soil water storage at 0-300 cm depth, improved the number of tillers and pre-anthesis N translocation in various organs of wheat and post-anthesis N accumulation, eventually increased the yield up to 17-36%. Delaying sowing time had reduced the soil water storage at sowing and winter accumulated temperature by about 180˚C. The contribution of N translocation to grain yield was maximum in glume+spike followed by in leaves and minimum by stem+sheath. In addition a close relationship was found between the N accumulation and translocation and the soil moisture in the 20-300 cm. Subsoiling during the fallow period and the medium sowing date was beneficial for improving the soil water storage and increased the N translocation to grain, thereby increasing the yield of wheat, especially in dry year.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: BMP15 gene; Ewe; Sudanese Sheep; Residue; Wild type; Mutant type; dryland
Online: 6 November 2020 (15:29:04 CET)
This study tested the association between FecXG point mutation located in exon 2 of BMP15 gene and the prolificacy of Dubasi, Shugor and Watish sheep ecotypes, under dryland farming, Sudan. Blood samples were randomly collected from unrelated 100 ewes (Dubasi; n= 30, Shugor: n= 30, and Watish: n= 40). Bone Morphogenetic protein (BMP15) gene was amplified using PCR-RFLP. Two genotypes were found in all studied breeds (heterozygous and wild type). The calculated total genotype frequencies of BB, Bb and bb genotypes were 0.31, 0.69 and 0.00, respectively, while allele frequencies were 0.66 for B and 0.34 for b. Litter size was influenced by the genotypes of BMP15 gene, parities and subtypes (p<0.05), highest for Watish and 4th parity. Alignment of BMP15 samples along with database reference sequence revealed that most sequence regions were identical except for one variable nucleotide at position 111 bp where a guanine (G) was replaced by adenine (A) in Watish and Shugor samples. All amino acids were the same at residue 275. Watish and Shugor breeds are more related. The study concluded that the presence of one copy of FecXG point mutation of BMP15 gene increased the litter size by 0.17 lambs in the studied ecotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0315.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Dryland cropping system; Management practices; Nitrogen budget; Nitrogen input; Nitrogen output.
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:21:48 CEST)
Studies on N balance due to N inputs and outputs and soil N retention to measure cropping system performance and environmental sustainability are limited due to the complexity of measurements of some parameters. We measured N balance based on N inputs and outputs and soil N retention under dryland agroecosystem affected by cropping system and N fertilization from 2007 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA. Cropping systems were conventional tillage barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.)-fallow (CTB-F), no-tillage barley-fallow (NTB-F), no-tillage barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), and no-tillage continuous barley (NTCB). Nitrogen rates to barley were 0, 40, 80, and 120 kg N ha-1. Total N input due to N fertilization, pea N fixation, soil N mineralization, atmospheric N deposition, nonsymbiotic N fixation, and crop seed N and total N output due to grain N removal, denitrification, volatilization, N leaching, gaseous N (NOx) emissions, surface runoff, and plant senescence were 28 to 37% greater with NTB-P and NTCB than CTB-F and NTB-F. Total N input and output also increased with increased N rate. Nitrogen sequestration rate at 0 to 10 cm averaged 22 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for all treatments. Nitrogen deficit ranged from 5 to 16 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with greater deficits for CTB-F and NTB-P and higher N rates. Because of increased grain N removal and reduced N loss to the environment and N fertilizer requirement, NTB-P with 40 kg N ha-1 can enhance agronomic performance and environmental sustainability while reducing N inputs compared to other management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0725.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: dry matter yield; nutrient uptake; soil nutrient reserves; co-application; grain yield; dryland
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:18:06 CEST)
Most smallscale farmers still use the traditional way of agricultural crop farming, and relay mostly use of chemical fertilizers (CF). Recently CF have become expensive and could in some way have a negative impact on soil quality after long term application. However, co-application of biogas slurry (BGS) with CF could help reduce farming costs while improving dry matter yields, grain yields, primary macronutrient uptake of (Nitrogen) N, (Phosphorus) P, (Potasium) K, (Calcium) Ca and (Magnesium) Mg and soil concentration of pH, (organic carbon) OC, N, P, K, Ca and Mg after crop harvest. The study was a field experiment conducted in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 growing seasons. The field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The treatments were based on percentages of recommended N rates of 120 kg N ha-1 for maize production. The BGS/CF treatments were (i) 0/0, (ii) 0/120, (iii) 24/96, (iv) 48/72, (v) 72/48, (vi) 96/24, (vii) 120/0 kg N ha-1. The spreading of the combination of BGS/CF treatments was performed by hand and incorporated into the top soil (0-10 cm) in each experimental plots. BGS/CF (48/72) treatment resulted into higher dry matter yield in 2016-2017, which was higher than all other treatment combinations, while in the 2017-2018 season, treatment of (0/120) resulted into higher dry matter than all other treatment combinations. The 48/72 and 0/120 treatments resulted into similar grain yield in 2016-2017 season which were higher than all other treatments. Treatments of 48/72, 72/48 and 120/0 had higher N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake than 0/0, 0/120, 24/96 and 96/24 treatments in both seasons. Soil pH, total N, K, and Mg were high from the treatment of (120/0) than all other treatments in 2016-2017 while in the 2017-2018 season, treatment of (48/72) had higher OC, P and K after maize harvest. The findings of his study show that co-application of BGS/CF at 48/72 and 72/48 have maize yield benefits compared to the two resources, BGS/CF (120/0) and BGS/CF (0/120), applied separately in soil especially in the arid and semi-arid regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0008.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Sustainable dryland farming; clay soil amendment; soil water use; organic matter; enzyme activity; nutrient turnover
Online: 1 March 2022 (08:27:33 CET)
Degraded soils causing from natural and human affects are universal in arid and semi-arid regions all over the world. Bentonite and humic acid (BHA) are increasingly being tested to remediate these degraded lands with potential benefits on crop production and soil health. The objective of this paper was to determine the residual effects four to five years after a one-time BHA application at six rates on (i) dynamic changes in soil properties, and (ii) oat crop productivity parameters, in a dryland farming ecosystem. With increasing rates of one-time BHA application, soil profile water storage displayed a piecewise linear increase plus plateau, whereas soil electrical conductivity, pH and bulk density were all reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the 0-20 cm and 20-60 cm layers. The improved soil environments gave rise to an increased activity of soil enzymes urease, invertase and catalase that respectively reached the peak values of 97%, 37% and 32% at the rates of 21 to 24 Mg BHA ha-1. These conversely boosted soil nutrient turnover, leading to a 40% higher soil available P. Compared with the control treatment, application of BHA at the estimated optimum rate (roughly 24 Mg ha-1) increased grain yield by 20%, protein yield by 62%, water use efficiency by 41%, and partial factor productivity of N by 20%. Results of this study showed for the first time that a one-time BHA application would be a new and effective strategy to combat land degradation, drought, and promote a sustainable soil micro-ecological environment in dryland agroecosystem under a varying climate scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; vertical axis wind turbine; computational fluid dynamics; dynamic interaction; closely spaced arrangements; phase synchronization; wind farm; dryland
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:05:53 CET)
To investigate the optimum layouts of small vertical axis wind turbines, a two-dimensional analysis of dynamic fluid body interaction is performed via computational fluid dynamics for a rotor pair in various configurations. The rotational speed of each turbine rotor (diameter: D = 50 mm) varies based on the equation of motion. First, the dependence of rotor performance on the gap distance (gap) between two rotors is investigated. For parallel layouts, counter-down (CD) layouts with blades moving downwind in the gap region yield a higher mean power than counter-up (CU) layouts with blades moving upwind in the gap region. CD layouts with gap/D = 0.5–1.0 yield a maximum average power that is 23% higher than that of an isolated single rotor. Assuming isotropic bidirectional wind speed, co-rotating (CO) layouts with the same rotational direction are superior to the combination of CD and CU layouts regardless of the gap distance. For tandem layouts, the inverse-rotating configuration (IR) shows an earlier wake recovery than the CO configuration. For 16-wind-direction layouts, both the IR and CO configurations indicate similar power distribution at gap/D = 2.0. For the first time, this study demonstrates the phase synchronization of two rotors via numerical simulation.