REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0419.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Carcinus maenas; shore crab; European green crab; population dynamics; life history
Online: 31 December 2019 (17:09:57 CET)
Carcinus maenas (the “shore crab” or “European green crab”) is a very proficient invader (considered to be one of the world’s 100 worst invaders by the IUCN) due to its phenotypic plasticity, wide temperature and salinity tolerance, and an extensive omnivorous diet. Native to Atlantic Europe, it has established two well‐studied nonindigenous populations in the northwestern Atlantic and northeastern Pacific and less‐studied populations in Australia, Argentina and South Africa. Green crabs are eurythermal and euryhaline as adults, but they are limited to temperate coastlines due to more restrictive temperature requirements for breeding and larval development. They cannot tolerate wave‐swept open shores so are found in wave‐protected sheltered bays, estuaries and harbors. Carcinus maenas has been the subject of numerous papers, with over 1000 published in the past decade. This review provides an up‐to‐date account of the current published information on the life history and population dynamics of this very important species, including genetic differentiation, habitat preferences, physical parameter tolerances, reproduction and larval development, sizes of crabs, densities of populations, sex ratios, ecosystem dynamics and ecological impacts in the various established global populations of green crabs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: marine fisheries; aquatic organisms; brachyura; anomura; commercial crab species; red king crab; Kamchatka crab; processing waste; hepatopancreas; waste recycling; enzymes; proteases; hyaluronidase
Online: 12 September 2020 (04:02:24 CEST)
Since the early 1980s, a large number of research works on enzymes from the red king crab hepatopancreas have been conducted. These studies have been relevant both from a fundamental point of view for studying the enzymes of marine organisms and in terms of the rational management of nature to obtain new and valuable products from the processing of crab fishing waste. Most of these works were performed by Russian scientists due to the area and amount of waste of red king crab processing in Russia (or the Soviet Union). However, the close phylogenetic kinship and the similar ecological niches of commercial crab species and the production scale of the catch provide the bases for the successful transfer of experience in the processing of red king crab hepatopancreas to other commercial crab species mined worldwide. This review describes the value of recycled commercial crab species, discusses processing problems, and suggests possible solutions to these problems. The main emphasis is placed on the enzymes of the hepatopancreas as the most highly salubrious product of waste processed from red king crab fishing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0534.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: covariates; crab data; foetal lamb data; orthonormal polynomials; Poisson distribution
Online: 27 July 2018 (05:20:44 CEST)
Dispersion tests based on the second order component of smooth test statistics are related to Fisher’s Index of Dispersion test, used for testing for the Poisson distribution when there are no covariates present. Such tests have been recommended in  to test for the Poisson distribution when covariates are present. The modified Borel-Tanner (MBT) distribution seems suited to data with extra zeroes, a monotonic decline in counts and longer tails. Here we recommend a dispersion test for the MBT distribution for both when covariates are absent and when they are present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: processing waste; Atlantic cod; collagen; red king crab; enzyme preparation; collagen hydrolysate; culture medium
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:25:50 CEST)
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) processing wastes are massive and unutilized in the Murmansk region of Russia. The samples of skin-containing waste of Atlantic cod fillets production were hydrolyzed using enzyme preparations derived from red king crab hepatopancreases, porcine pancreases and Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The activity of enzymes from crab hepatopancreases was significantly higher than the activity of enzymes derived from other sources. The optimal conditions of the hydrolysis process have been figured out. The samples of cod processing waste hydrolysate were analyzed for amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The samples of hydrolysate were used as core components for bacterial culture medium samples. The efficiency of the medium samples was tested for Escherichia coli growth rate; the most efficient sample had efficiency 95.3% of that of a commercially available medium based on fish meal. Substitution of medium components with those derived from industrial by-products is one of the ways to decrease a cost of a culture medium in biopharmaceutical drug production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0168.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: aquaculture; shellfish; future food; nursery stage; mud crab; juvenile; seed production; hatchery; crablet; breeding
Online: 5 February 2021 (16:18:19 CET)
This study attempted to explain the definition, objectives, and key stages in mud crab nursery activities. The nursery stages of Scylla spp was started from megalopa stage to several crablet instar stages or started from earlier crablet stage to several crablet stages. Direct stocking of megalopa into ponds is not recommended due to their sensitivity. Instead, nursery rearing is needed to produce mud crab of larger size before stocking. Individual nursery rearing results in higher survival rate (up to 100%), but with reduced growth rate, and a more complicated maintenance process compared with communal rearing. Nursery of mud crab can be done indoors, or outdoors, with adequate shelter and feed required to obtain good survival and growth performance. Artemia nauplii are the main, established nursery feed, particularly at megalopa stage, while survival rate may be improved if combined with artificial feed, such as micro bound diet formulations. Water quality parameters, identical to those proposed in tiger shrimp culture, can followed. Crablets may be transported to the pond location with, or without water. The provision of monosex seeds from mud crab hatcheries is expected to become more common, increasing seed price, and thus improving income of farmers. Numerous aspects of mud crab nursery, including nutrition, feeding strategies, understanding of their behaviour, i.e., cannibalism, control of environmental factors, and practical rearing techniques, still need further improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0204.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: fish meal; soy protein concentrate; feed efficiency; tissue growth; protein requirement; energy budget; juvenile crab; Scylla serrata
Online: 14 October 2022 (05:31:13 CEST)
Three isoenergetic diets differing on their fishmeal/ soy protein concentrate (SPC) ratio were assessed on tissue growth and energy budget of juvenile crabs Scylla serrata in postmolt stages (PMolt) and in intermolt stages (IMolt). The average growth rate on dry matter basis, were 2.064 ± 0.324% and 0.492 ± 0.08% initial BW.day-1 during PMolt and IMolt stages respectively. The efficiency in feed conversion (FCE, %), protein retention (PRE, %) and energy retention (ERE, %) were similar for the 3 experimental diets. However, FCE, PRE and ERE in PMolt stages were 4 to 5 times higher than in IMolt stages. Feed intake, energy and protein required for growth in PMolt stages were obviously higher than in IMolt stages. The energy budgets (%total energy intake) were marginally affected by diet but were significantly affected by the molt stage. Maintenance energy was lower in PMolt stages (49.84 ± 4.9%) than in IMolt stages (83.33 ± 2.45%). The excess of maintenance energy in IMolt stages represents the portion set aside for next molt: shell energy content (4.97 ± 0.31%) and energy for ecdysis (± 28%). Conversely, recovery energy was significantly higher in PMolt stages (34.39 ± 0.99%) than in IMolt stages (8.33 ± 1.7%). In conclusion SPC sustained good tissue growth and good feed utilization and can be used as a main source of dietary protein for crab juveniles in captivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0001.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: treating filler complications; hyaluronidase; red king crab; hepatopancreas; hyaluronic acid (HA); hyaluronidase activity; turbidimetric method; atomic force microscopy (AFM); nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); Revofil Ultra filler; Hyaluform deep filler; Lydase; Liporase
Online: 14 October 2019 (15:42:23 CEST)
This study focused on hydrolysis of cosmetic fillers hyaluronic acid (HA) and kinetics of the HA hydrolysis using the homogenate of the red king crab hepatopancreas. Turbidimetric analysis of the reaction mixture revealed a bell-shaped time dependence of aggregation formation. It was shown that the obtained homogenate has the similar activity to the commercially available hyaluronidase. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) examination found that the HA fillers were represented by spherical-like structures. These structures were destroyed under the action of the homogenate of the red king crab hepatopancreas. NMR of the reaction mixture showed that HA degradation lasts for some days, but a maximum rate of the reaction is detected in the first hours of incubation. The preparation with hyaluronidase activity obtained from the red king crab hepatopancreas could be used as potentially safe product for treating filler complications.