REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: corticotropin releasing factor; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); maternal separation (MS); neurotransmitters; pain; psychosocial stress; visceral hyperalgesia; water avoidance stress (WAS); wrap restrain stress (WRS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:39:49 CET)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a main role has been attributed to psychosocial stress of different origin. Animals models such as neonatal maternal separation, water avoidance stress and wrap restraint stress have been developed as psychosocial stressors in the attempt to reproduce the IBS symptomatology and identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for the disease. The study of these models has led to the production of drugs potentially useful for IBS treatment. This review intends to give an overview on the results obtained with the animal models; to emphasize the role of the enteric nervous system in IBS appearance and evolution and as a possible target of drug therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0234.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: corticotropin releasing factor (CRF); patch-clamp electrophysiology; sex difference; alcohol use disorder (AUD); Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA); central amygdala (CeA); spontaneous inhibitory post synaptic currents (sIPSCs)
Online: 16 June 2022 (08:41:35 CEST)
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronically relapsing disease characterized by loss of control in seeking and consuming alcohol (ethanol) driven by recruitment of brain stress systems. However, AUD differs among the sexes: men are more likely to develop AUD, but women progress from casual to binge drinking and heavy alcohol use more quickly. The central amygdala (CeA) is a hub of stress and anxiety, with corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-CRF1 receptor and GABAergic signaling dysregulation occurring in alcohol dependent male rodents. However, we recently showed that GABAergic synapses in female rats are less sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol. Here, we used patch clamp electrophysiology to examine the effects of alcohol dependence on the CRF-modulation of rat CeA GABAergic transmission of both sexes. We found that GABAergic synapses of naïve female rats were unresponsive to CRF application compared males, although alcohol dependence induced a similar CRF responsivity in both sexes. In situ hybridization revealed that females had less CeA neurons containing mRNA for the CRF1 receptor (Crhr1) than males, but in dependence, the percentage of Crhr1-expressing neurons in females increased, unlike males. Overall, our data provide evidence for sexually dimorphic CeA CRF system effects on GABAergic synapses in dependence.