ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0729.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: foggy weather scenarios; deep learning; SwinFoucs; decoupled head; Soft-NMS
Online: 10 May 2023 (10:05:03 CEST)
In foggy weather scenarios, the scattering and absorption of light by water droplets and particulate matter cause object features in images to become blurred or lost, presenting a significant challenge for target detection in autonomous driving vehicles. To tackle this problem, this study proposes a foggy weather detection method, YOLOv5s-Fog, based on the YOLOv5s framework. The model enhances the feature extraction and expression capabilities of YOLOv5s by introducing a novel target detection layer, SwinFocus. Additionally, this research incorporates decoupled head into the model and replaces the conventional non-maximum suppression method with Soft-NMS. Experimental results demonstrate that these improvements effectively enhance the detection performance for blurry objects and small targets in foggy weather conditions. Compared to the baseline model YOLOv5s, YOLOv5s-Fog achieves a 5.4% increase in mAP on the RTTS dataset, reaching 73.4%. This method provides technical support for rapid and accurate target detection in adverse weather conditions, such as foggy weather, for autonomous driving vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0310.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: older women; ovarian stimulation protocol; in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer; cumulative live birth rate; time to live birth; cost-effectiveness.
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:39:42 CET)
The decline in assisted reproductive technology (ART) success among older women, attributed to decreased oocyte quantity and quality, poses a significant challenge. Currently, no consensus ex-ists on the optimal ovarian stimulation protocol for older women undergoing IVF. This retrospec-tive registered cohort study aimed to compare cumulative live birth rates (CLBR), time to live birth (TTLB), and cost-effectiveness in women over 35 years using gonadotropin-releasing hor-mone agonist (GnRHa) or clomiphene-primed ovarian stimulation (CPOS). We performed pro-pensity score matching (PSM) on 2,871 IVF cycles in women over 35 who received either GnRHa or CPOS protocols, resulting in 375 cycles in each group to compare treatment outcomes. Addition-ally, a decision tree model was utilized to assess the cost-effectiveness of the two protocols. Fol-lowing PSM, both groups showed similar baseline characteristics. The CPOS protocol exhibited a higher cycle cancellation rate (13.07% vs 8.00%, p=0.032), yet maintained comparable fertilization and embryo quality. While CLBRs per initial cycle (41.07% vs. 45.33%, p=0.269) and delivery out-comes were similar between the groups after a 24-month follow-up, TTLB was longer in the CPOS group. Notably, the average cost per live birth in the CPOS group was 21.27% less than that in the GnRHa group (￥32,301.42 vs ￥39,174.22). In conclusion, for women over 35 undergoing IVF, the CPOS protocol demonstrated similar CLBR to GnRHa but with lower costs, suggesting its potential as a viable and cost-efficient ovarian stimulation option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pyroptosis; ovarian cancer; prognosic; immune microenvironment; signature
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:19:53 CET)
Background: LncRNA and pyroptosis play important roles in cancer development and tumor immune microenviroment. However, pyroptosis-related lncRNAs (PRLs) in ovarian cancer have not been identified and its impact on prognosis and immune response are not fully understood. Methods: Using pearson correlation analysis, PRLs were screened. Subsequently, we constructed a prognosis signature by using LASSO cox regression. In addition, the association between risk score and cancer immune environment was analyzed. Results: In TCGA-RNA-seq cohort (n=377), 32 prognostic PRLs were selected and a 7-gene signature were developed and had high accuracy in predicting the OS of ovarian cancer patients. Stratification analysis suggested that it might serve as an independent prognostic indicator. Except to clinical outcome, the signature was significantly associated with tumor immune microenvironment. Patients with high risk score exhibited lower infiltration abundance of MHC class Ⅰ cells, Type Ⅰ IFN response and immunotherapy response. In ovarian cancer, TYMSOS was highly expressed and its high expression was associated with worse OS. TYMSOS deletion in ovarian cancer cell lines inhibited the cell proliferation, invasion and migration, indicating that it might serve as a novel biomarker in ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The prognostic PRLs signature constructed in this work is available for prognostic prediction and immune microenvironment infiltration in ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1174.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Generative adversarial networks (GANs); SAR image generation; speckle noise; deceptive jamming; synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:12:21 CEST)
To realize fast and effective synthetic aperture radar (SAR) deception jamming, a high-quality SAR deception jamming template library can be generated by performing sample augmentation on SAR deception jamming templates. However, current sample augmentation schemes of SAR deception jamming templates face certain problems. First, the authenticity of templates is low due to the lack of speckle noise. Second, the generated templates have low similarity to the target and shadow areas of the input templates. To solve these problems, this study proposes a sample augmentation scheme based on generative adversarial networks, which can generate a high-quality library of SAR deception jamming templates with shadows. The proposed scheme solves the two aforementioned problems from the following aspects. First, the influence of the speckle noise is considered in the network to avoid the problem of reduced authenticity in generated images. Second, a channel attention mechanism module is used to improve the network's learning ability of shadow features, which improves the similarity between the generated template and the shadow area in the input template. Finally, the proposed scheme and the SinGAN scheme are compared regarding the equivalent numbers of looks and the structural similarity between the target and shadow in the sample augmentation results. The comparison results demonstrate that, compared to the templates generated by the SinGAN scheme, those generated by the proposed scheme have targets and shadow features similar to those of the original image, and can incorporate speckle noise characteristics, resulting in higher authenticity, which helps to achieve fast and effective SAR deception jamming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1611.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: gallium oxide; thermal oxidation; p-type conductivity; polycrystalline crystal
Online: 24 July 2023 (11:45:41 CEST)
The development of good conductivity p-type β-Ga2O3 is critical to realize its devices and applications. The nitrogen-doped p-type β-Ga2O3 films with enhanced conductivity characteristics were prepared through the thermal oxidation of GaN in the N2O atmosphere. Further measurements were performed on the oxidized films at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C to have insight into the underlying mechanism of the thermally activated transformation process. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra demonstrated a moderate ultraviolet emission peak at 246 nm, confirming the generation of gallium oxide with a band gap of ~5.0 eV. The normalized X-ray diffraction (XRD), the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns were used to confirm the characteristic of polycrystalline and anisotropic growth. Then, the effects of the oxidation temperature on the amount of incorporated nitrogen were analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Moreover, the ionization energy of the acceptor of films oxidized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C was calculated and analyzed using the temperature-dependent Hall test results. The results showed that nitrogen doping was the main contributor to p-type electrical properties. The activation energy of the polycrystalline β-Ga2O3 prepared through thermal oxidation of GaN in the N2O atmosphere was estimated to be 147.175 kJ·mol-1 using the Arrhenius plot, which was considerably lower than that of both dry and wet oxidations of GaN in O2 ambient, thus confirming the efficiency of thermal oxidation of GaN in N2O.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microenvironment signature; prognostic model; glioma; CGGA; ESTIMATE algorithm
Online: 16 December 2020 (11:01:08 CET)
Glioma accounts for the highest proportion of primary intracranial malignant tumors. Microenvironment enormously influences the process of glioma progression. Our study is to establish an individualized prognostic nomogram for glioma patients with microenvironment signature. Glioma samples of Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) were grouped by the immune and stromal score based on ESTIMATE algorithm. Microenvironment-related genes (MRGs) in glioma were analyzed by R. To determine the best prognostic correlation genes, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to analyze MRGs. Use the selected genes (CHI3L1, SOCS3, SLC47A2, COL3A1, SRPX2 and SERPINA3), we established the prognostic risk score model (microenvironment signature) and validated it. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) showed that the high-risk group was mainly enriched in immune and stromal function KEGG pathways. Finally, the nomogram was constructed and evaluated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Calibration plots and decision curve analysis (DCA) of training and validation set indicated the excellent predictive performance of nomogram. In conclusion, the 6-gene microenvironment signature can not only provide directions for the basic research of glioma, but also can be included as an independent prognostic index in nomogram for individual prediction to guide clinical treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2147.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: chronic heat stress; duck rearing; environmental temperature; next-generation sequencing; carcass traits
Online: 1 August 2023 (05:35:24 CEST)
Chronic heat stress (CHS) has been exerting great pressure on the poultry industry due to the global warming. CHS-induced negative impacts deeply change the physiology, metabolism, egg production and meat quality of ducks. To reduce the increasing economic loss, different environmental strategies have been adopted. Here, we comprehensively compared three rearing modes for Cherry-Valley ducks (CVds) mainly by changing the environmental temperature. Plus, the transcriptome analysis and physiological anatomy were implied to investigate the underlying molecular biology and pneumonocyte dynamics. It turns out that the CVds affected by CHS have poor growth performance and bad carcass traits. In addition, the irreversible damage caused by CHS in the lung tissue of CVds was observed. Furthermore, several potential genes related to CHS have been found, such as HSPA8, IGF1, FGFR1, ACSL3, ACSL6, NR1H3 and GAPDH. This study strongly indicates the severe injury of CHS from the high-temperature environment and points out one of the adopting directions for duck rearing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma; tumor mutation load; cuproptosis; long noncoding RNA; immunotherapeutic response
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:08:33 CET)
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histological subtype. However, the prognostic and predictive outcomes differ because of the heterogeneity of programmed cell death. The purpose of this work is to investigate and develop a cuproptosis-associated lncRNA-based LUAD prediction marker. We firstly performed bioinformatic analysis of the Cuprotosis database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to obtain 19 cuprotosis-related gene datasets and transcriptional data for LUAD. Univariate, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and multivariate Cox regression analysis were utilized to construct cuproptosis-associated lncRNA modes. LUAD patients were thus classified into high-risk and low-risk categories based on prognostic risk values, with a median of It acted as a boundary. Risk models were evaluated and validated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and nomograms. Utilizing the TCGA-LUAD dataset, we identified seven predicted cuproptosis-associated lncRNAs in tumor microenvironment to create the risk model. 95.54% (214/224) of high-risk category tumor samples included cuproptosis-associated gene alterations, compared to 85.65% (203/237) of low-risk category tumor samples, with TP53 accounting for the bulk of occurrences. According to these findings, risk value was superior to other clinical variables and tumor mutation burden as a predictor of 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS). The predictive validity of the cuproptosis-associated lncRNA-based risk model for LUAD is high, and this may have implications for how lung cancer patients are treated individually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0048.v1
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:36:38 CEST)
In this work, we'll present the power spectra density, auto-correlation function, dentrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal spectrum are performed to the daily light curves of Blazars monitored by Fermi LAT. Some signs of power law are found.