CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0640.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: VIP; COVID-19; respiratory failure; vasoactive intestinal peptide; aviptadil; ARDS
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:38:23 CEST)
Background: Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is known to bind to and protect the Alveolar Type II cell by blocking replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, upregulating surfactant production, blocking apoptosis, and blocking cytokine effects. RLF-100 (Aviptadil), a synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) has been granted Fast Track Designation and is currently in phase 2/3 placebo-controlled trials. FDA has granted Emergency Use IND and Expanded Access Protocol approval for the use of RLF-100 in patients whose comorbidities render them ineligible for inclusion in the ongoing pivotal trial. Methods: This report describes the first 6 patients with Acute Respiratory Failure in Critical COVID-19, enrolled under Emergency Use IND were treated with three successive 12-hour infusions of intravenous Aviptadil at 50/100/150 pmol/kg/hr, while continuing to receive maximal ICU care. Results: Median patient follow-up time is 14 days. So far, all treated patients have survived. Improved radiographic appearance of typical “ground glass” COVID-19 features to varying degrees is seen in all patients within 72 hours. Improvement in blood oxygenation is seen in all patients, with complete remission from respiratory failure in 4 of 6 patients. An average 56% reduction in inflammatory markers was seen, together with a median 4 point reduction in the NIAID Ordinal Scale. 2/6 patients were discharged from the hospital and 1 patient was downgraded to the general medicine floor. Comment: The short term survival of 6/6 patients with respiratory failure in the setting of COVID-19 and major comorbidity is the most dramatic response ever seen with an antiviral agent. Improvement in radiographic appearance, oxygenation requirement, and inflammatory markers is consistent with in vitro evidence of direct anti-viral effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: ARDS; VIP; Aviptadil; RLF-100; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Sepsis
Online: 20 July 2020 (03:46:11 CEST)
Purpose: To assess the clinical safety and possible effectiveness of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) related to sepsis. Methods: Under FDA Investigational New Drug clearance, 8 patients with ARDS related to sepsis were treated with 50 pmole/kg/hr – 100 pmole/kg/hr of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide by intravenous infusion for 12 hours. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and full telemetery. Results: No drug-related serious adverse events were seen. Hypotension was seen in association with two infusions and diarrhea in association with one, but did not necessitate cessation of therapy. Bigeminy was seen in association with one infusion without sequelae. Seven of eight patients demonstrated a successful course during intensive care and were successfully removed from mechanical ventilation and discharged from intensive care. The eighth patient succumbed to purulent secretions in the lungs. Of those who were discharged from the ICU, six demonstrated successful 30 day survival. The seventh died from a cerebral infract at day 30, deemed unrelated to treatment with VIP. Serum levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor α were obtained in 6 patients at baseline and 24 hours and were seen to decrease with treatment in five patients. Conclusions: Initial clinical results of treatment with VIP in patients with ARDS demonstrated a safety profile consistent with previous studies in normal volunteers. The successful clinical course seen in 7 of 8 patients in the setting of an expected 50% survival may suggest that VIP shows promise in the treatment of other infectious conditions that damage the pulmonary epithelium, particularly COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0559.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microglial activation; PACAP; VIP; morphological analyses; BV2; inflammatory markers; GFAP; Iba1
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:11:34 CEST)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are two structurally-related immunosuppressive peptides. However, the underlying mechanisms through which these peptides regulate microglial activity are not fully understood. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an inflammatory challenge, we tested whether PACAP or VIP differentially affected microglial activation, morphology and cell migration. We found that both peptides attenuated LPS-induced expression of the microglial activation markers Iba1 and iNOS (###p<0.001), as well as the pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β, IL-6, Itgam and CD68 (###p<0.001). In contrast, treatment with PACAP or VIP exerted distinct effects on microglial morphology and migration. PACAP reversed LPS-induced soma enlargement and increased the percentage of small-sized, rounded cells (54.09% vs 12.05% in LPS-treated cells), whereas VIP promoted a phenotypic shift towards cell subpopulations with mid-sized, spindle-shaped soma (48.41% vs 31.36% in LPS-treated). Additionally, PACAP was more efficient than VIP in restoring LPS-induced impairment of cell migration and the expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in BV2 cells compared with VIP. These results suggest that whilst both PACAP and VIP exert similar immunosuppressive effects in activated BV2 microglia, each peptide triggers distinctive shifts towards phenotypes of differing morphologies and with differing migration capacities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SBRT; SABR; Abscopal; vascular-normalization; immunotherapy; phenotypic; antiangiogenics; immunoadjuvants; VIP-model; High-LET
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:32:33 CEST)
.This review highlights normal and tumor tissue vasculature, immunological changes, and phenotypic alterations (VIP model) as fundamental in abscopal interaction. In the stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and immunotherapy era, we are moving toward “immunological radiation planning,” i.e., radiation scheduling with abscopal effect as a vital endpoint as well. Towards this end, this manuscript presents specific diagrammatic tumor models to optimize the outcome of abscopal response in SBRT, based on the principle of the four R’s - Repair, Redistribution, Repopulation, and Reoxygenation of radiotherapy. The article highlights the importance of restricting the dose of SBRT to < 10 Gy per fraction, appropriate use of dose painting, and concomitant/delayed SBRT boost potential. Current literature indicates that immunotherapy should not precede but follow SBRT within seven days. Included is the review of integrating “cyclical” antiangiogenics, immune adjuvants/immune-metabolites as abscopal effect enhancers with SBRT. The importance of proton, carbon-ion SBRT is dealt with briefly. Proposed six fundamental requirements for augmentation of the abscopal cascade are listed. The existing exploratory results need to develop a definitive strategy amidst complex interactions in SBRT, immunotherapy, immune-adjuvants, & abscopal effects. We now have enough literature evidence to convert “abscopal by chance” to “abscopal by design” by harmonized combinatorial approach.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Aviptadil; Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; VIP; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Corona Virus; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ARDS; Acute Lung Injury; ALI; surfactant; Alveolar Type II; ATII
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:16:20 CEST)
RLF-100 (Aviptadil), a synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is shown to block replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been granted Fast Track Designation by the US FDA for the treatment of Critical COVID-19 with Respiratory Failure. We describe the clinical course of the first patient treated with this investigational medication in an open label manner -- a 54 year old patient suffering antibody-mediated rejection of his double lung transplant who contracted COVID-19 with respiratory failure refractory to all currently available therapies. He received three infusions of RLF-100 under an FDA-approved emergency use IND. Within 24 hours of the third infusion, substantial improvement in oxygen saturation and radiographic improvement in characteristic COVID-19 pneumonitis was noted. He was discharged from intensive care at that point and scheduled for discharge to home at 1 week on room air. Despite an intervening hospitalization for trauma, he remains alive and free of respiratory failure at 28 days post treatment.