Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Immunological Planning – Road to Abscopal Effect by Design

Version 1 : Received: 4 June 2021 / Approved: 7 June 2021 / Online: 7 June 2021 (09:32:33 CEST)

How to cite: Swamy, K. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Immunological Planning – Road to Abscopal Effect by Design. Preprints 2021, 2021060161 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0161.v1). Swamy, K. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Immunological Planning – Road to Abscopal Effect by Design. Preprints 2021, 2021060161 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0161.v1).

Abstract

.This review highlights normal and tumor tissue vasculature, immunological changes, and phenotypic alterations (VIP model) as fundamental in abscopal interaction. In the stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and immunotherapy era, we are moving toward “immunological radiation planning,” i.e., radiation scheduling with abscopal effect as a vital endpoint as well. Towards this end, this manuscript presents specific diagrammatic tumor models to optimize the outcome of abscopal response in SBRT, based on the principle of the four R’s - Repair, Redistribution, Repopulation, and Reoxygenation of radiotherapy. The article highlights the importance of restricting the dose of SBRT to < 10 Gy per fraction, appropriate use of dose painting, and concomitant/delayed SBRT boost potential. Current literature indicates that immunotherapy should not precede but follow SBRT within seven days. Included is the review of integrating “cyclical” antiangiogenics, immune adjuvants/immune-metabolites as abscopal effect enhancers with SBRT. The importance of proton, carbon-ion SBRT is dealt with briefly. Proposed six fundamental requirements for augmentation of the abscopal cascade are listed. The existing exploratory results need to develop a definitive strategy amidst complex interactions in SBRT, immunotherapy, immune-adjuvants, & abscopal effects. We now have enough literature evidence to convert “abscopal by chance” to “abscopal by design” by harmonized combinatorial approach.

Keywords

SBRT; SABR; Abscopal; vascular-normalization; immunotherapy; phenotypic; antiangiogenics; immunoadjuvants; VIP-model; High-LET

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