ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioblastoma; blood brain barrier; transforming growth factor beta; NMR metabolomics
Online: 20 December 2022 (01:19:48 CET)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a selectively permeable boundary that separates the circulating blood from the extracellular ﬂuid of the brain and is an essential component for brain homeostasis. In glioblastoma (GBM), the BBB of peritumoral vessels is often disrupted. Pericytes, being important to maintain the BBB integrity, can be functionally modified by GBM cells by inducing proliferation and cell motility via the TGF-β-mediated induction of central epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) factors., We demonstrate that pericytes strengthen the integrity of the BBB in primary endothelial cell/pericyte co-cultures as in vitro BBB model, using TEER measurement of the barrier integrity. In contrast, this effect was abrogated by TGF-β or conditioned medium from TGF-β secreting GBM cells, finally leading to the disruption of a so far intact and tight BBB. TGF-β dramatically changed the metabolic behavior of pericytes, such as shutting down the TCA cycle, driving energy generation from oxidative phosphorylation towards glycolysis, and by shifting the cells towards the activation of pathways that are necessary to produce molecules used for proliferation and cell division. Furthermore, combined metabolomics and RNASeq analyses indicated that the observed functional changes of TGF-β-treated pericytes are closely connected with their behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; intranasal delivery; oncolytic adenovirus; XVir‐N‐31; shuttle cells
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:22:58 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive and lethal primary brain tumor with restricted treatment options and a dismal prognosis. Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has developed as a promising approach for GBM treatment. However, reaching invasive GBM cells may be hindered by tumor-surrounding, non-neoplastic cells when the OV is applied intratumorally. In this study, using a rodent GBM model and immunofluorescence analyses, we investigated the intranasal delivery of the oncolytic adenovirus (OAV) XVir-N-31 via virus-loaded, optimized shuttle cells. Intranasal administration (INA) was selected due to its non-invasive nature and the potential to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our findings demonstrate that INA of XVir-N-31 loaded shuttle cells successfully delivers OAVs to the core tumor and invasive GBM cells, significantly prolongs the survival of GBM bearing mice, induces immunogenic cell death and finally reduces tumor burden, all this highlighting the therapeutic potential of this innovative approach. Overall, this study provides compelling evidence for the effectiveness of INA of XVir-N-31 via shuttle cells as a promising therapeutic strategy for GBM. The non-invasive nature of INA of OV-loaded shuttle cells holds great promise for future clinical translation. However, further research is required to assess the efficacy of this approach to ultimately progress in human clinical trials.