ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Green Information Technology; Energy saving-font; Ink toner consumption; Hollow embedded font; Sustainable printing.
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:19:47 CET)
The utilization of eco-fonts for office printing is a sustainable, “green” printing concept, which has obvious economic benefits. As a result, it has a significant effect on environmental sustainability. This practice's fundamental problem is the decreased quality of text printed using eco-fonts compared to those printed with regular fonts. The aim of this research is eco-font efficiency estimation, i.e. determination of toner usage reduction level of inkjet-printed documents typed with this font type, as well as estimation of the extent humans perceive differences between text printed with eco-font and the one printed by its “non-eco“ equivalent. Combining the instrumental measuring method and digital image analysis, it was found that this simple principle (eco-font utilization) enables substantial toner usage reduction for an inkjet printing system. At the same time, a visual test showed that the visual experience of text printed using eco-font was sufficient. In addition, awareness of the benefits that eco-font utilization brings, change users’ attitude towards eco-font quality. The concept of removing the black pixel from this commonly used Thai font has a great potential for the sustainability printing process, and this simple solution could be applied to other languages as part of the GIT campaign.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Curved FRP bars; bent fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP); bend capacity; bend strength; Bent test; strength & testing of materials; material characterisation
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:27:22 CEST)
Steel reinforcement in concrete has the tendency to corrode and this process can lead to structural damage. FRP reinforcement represents a viable alternative for structures exposed to aggressive environments and has many possible applications where superior corrosion resistance properties are required. The use of FRP rebars as internal reinforcements for concrete, however, is limited to specific structural elements and does not yet extend to the whole structure. The reasons for this relate to the limited availability of curved or shaped reinforcing elements on the market and their reduced structural performance. Various studies, in fact, have shown that the mechanical performance of bent portions of composite bars is reduced significantly under a multiaxial combination of stresses and that the tensile strength can be as low as 25% of the maximum tensile strength that can be developed in the straight part. In a significant number of cases, the current design recommendations for concrete structures reinforced with FRP, however, were found to overestimate the bend capacity of FRP rebar. This paper presents the state-of-the art review of the research works on the strength degradation in curved FRP composites and highlighted the performance of exiting predictive models for the bend capacity of FRP reinforcement. Recent practical predictive model based on the Tsai-Hill failure criteria by considering the material at marcromechanical level is also discussed and highlighted. The review also identifies the challenges and highlights the future directions of research to explore the use of shaped FRP composites in civil engineering applications and the trends for future research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate; construction waste; shear strength; shear provision; design equation
Online: 5 August 2021 (09:41:27 CEST)
The brittle shear failure of reinforced concrete beams is complexed and unfavorable. For decades, research on the mechanical properties and durability of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) to make recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) has been widely investigated. However, test results on the shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams are still limited and contradictory. This paper reports the shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams without stirrups. Eight RAC beams and two controlled beams with natural coarse aggregate (NCA) were tested under the four-point flexural test with the shear span-to-effective depth ratio (a/d) of 3.10. Parameters in this study were the replacement percentage of RCA (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and longitudinal reinforcement ratio (w) of 1.16% and 1.80%. It was found that the normalized shear stresses of RAC beams with w = 1.80% at all levels of replacement percentage were quite similar to that of the NAC counterparts. Normalized shear stress of the beam with 100% RCA and w = 1.16% was lower than that of the NAC beam by 5%. Database of 128 RAC beams without shear reinforcement from literature was analyzed to evaluate the ability of the most recent ACI 318-19 shear provisions in shear strength prediction. A reduction factor of 0.75 is proposed to the current ACI code provision to account for the physical variations of RCA such as replacement percentage, RCA source and quality, density, amount of residual mortar, and physical irregularity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Reinforced Concrete; Raft Foundation; Temperature Effects; Finite Element Modelling
Online: 16 May 2022 (03:59:22 CEST)
This article presents a case study on the structural assessment of a reinforced concrete (RC) foundation exposed to low temperatures. The foundation supports a 19,500 m³-capacity tank with low-temperature (-89°C) ethane. Icing and bubbling were observed on the tank’s surface soon after it started operations. Condensation was also observed at the bottom of the 0.8 m-depth RC slab, which raised concerns about the structural condition of the concrete. This study provides details of the field and analytical investigations conducted to assess the structural condition of the foundation. Heat transfer finite element (FE) analyses were performed to examine the concrete sections subjected to low temperatures. It was found that the ethane leakage produced a low temperature on the top side of the concrete foundation of +9.7°C. Overall, the temperatures calculated by the FE analyses were in good agreement with actual field measurements, within a ±5% accuracy. The simplified heat transfer equation for porous media used in this study was sufficiently accurate to model the effects of the ethane leakage in the concrete foundation, provided the ambient temperature at the site is taken into account in the analysis. The results also confirm that reinforcing bars can be neglected in the thermal analysis of massive concrete slabs. The results from the field measurements and FE analyses confirmed that the structural integrity of the RC foundation was never compromised. The approaches, methods and techniques discussed in this article are deemed suitable to solve the practical and scientific challenges involved in the structural assessment and repairs of large special structures. Accordingly, they can serve as useful reference and guidance for engineers and practitioners working in the field of forensic engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0695.v1
Subject: Keywords: water resource management; solar-water; solar-water supply system; SWSS; decision support; solar pumping; climate change; royal initiative project
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:40:50 CEST)
This article presents a field-performance investigation on an Integrated Solar Water Supply System (SWSS) at two isolated agricultural areas in Thailand. The two case-study villages (Pongluek and Bangkloy ) have experienced severe draughts in the last decades, and therefore water supply has become a major issue. A stand-alone 15.36 kW solar power and a 15 kW solar submersible pump were installed along with the input power generated by solar panels supported by four solar trackers. The aim is to lift water at the static head of 64 and 48 m via piping length of 400 metres for each village to be stored in 1,000 m3 and 1,800 m3 reservoirs at an average of 300 m3 and 400 m3 per day, respectively for Pongluek and Bangkloy villages. The case study results have shown that the real costs of electricity generated by SWSS using solar PV systems intergraded with the solar tracking system yield better performance and are more advantageous compared with the non-tracking system. This study illustrates how system integration has been employed. System design and commercially available simulation predictions are elaborated. Construction, installation, and field tests for SWSS are discussed and highlighted. Performances of the SWSS in different weather conditions such as sunny, cloudy, and rainy days were analysed to make valuable suggestions for higher efficiency of the integrated solar water supply systems.