Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: regular semigroup; inverse semigroup; polyadic semigroup; idempotent; neutral element
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:06:28 CEST)
In this note we generalize the regularity concept for semigroups in two ways simultaneously: to higher regularity and to higher arity. We show that the one-relational and multi-relational formulations of higher regularity do not coincide, and each element has several inverses. The higher idempotents are introduced, and their commutation leads to unique inverses in the multi-relational formulation, and then further to the higher inverse semigroups. For polyadic semigroups we introduce several types of higher regularity which satisfy the arity invariance principle as introduced: the expressions should not depend of the numerical arity values, which allows us to provide natural and correct binary limits. In the first definition no idempotents can be defined, analogously to the binary semigroups, and therefore the uniqueness of inverses can be governed by shifts. In the second definition called sandwich higher regularity, we are able to introduce the higher polyadic idempotents, but their commutation does not provide uniqueness of inverses, because of the middle terms in the higher polyadic regularity conditions.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Yang-Baxter equation; braid group; qubit; ternary; polyadic; braiding quantum gate
Online: 12 July 2021 (09:08:06 CEST)
A new kind of quantum gates, higher braiding gates, as matrix solutions of the polyadic braid equations (different from the generalized Yang-Baxter equations) is introduced. Such gates lead to another special multiqubit entanglement which can speed up key distribution and accelerate algorithms. Ternary braiding gates acting on three qubit states are studied in details. We also consider exotic noninvertible gates which can be related with qubit loss, and define partial identities (which can be orthogonal), partial unitarity, and partially bounded operators (which can be noninvertible). We define two classes of matrices, star and circle ones, such that the magic matrices (connected with the Cartan decomposition) belong to the star class. The general algebraic structure of the introduced classes is described in terms of semigroups, ternary and $5$-ary groups and modules. The higher braid group and its representation by the higher braid operators are given. Finally, we show, that for each multiqubit state there exist higher braiding gates which are not entangling, and the concrete conditions to be non-entangling are given for the obtained binary and ternary gates.