Working Paper Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Higher Regularity, Inverse and Polyadic Semigroups

Version 1 : Received: 7 September 2021 / Approved: 9 September 2021 / Online: 9 September 2021 (10:49:30 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 22 September 2021 / Approved: 22 September 2021 / Online: 22 September 2021 (10:06:28 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Duplij, S. Higher Regularity, Inverse and Polyadic Semigroups. Universe 2021, 7, 379. Duplij, S. Higher Regularity, Inverse and Polyadic Semigroups. Universe 2021, 7, 379.


In this note we generalize the regularity concept for semigroups in two ways simultaneously: to higher regularity and to higher arity. We show that the one-relational and multi-relational formulations of higher regularity do not coincide, and each element has several inverses. The higher idempotents are introduced, and their commutation leads to unique inverses in the multi-relational formulation, and then further to the higher inverse semigroups. For polyadic semigroups we introduce several types of higher regularity which satisfy the arity invariance principle as introduced: the expressions should not depend of the numerical arity values, which allows us to provide natural and correct binary limits. In the first definition no idempotents can be defined, analogously to the binary semigroups, and therefore the uniqueness of inverses can be governed by shifts. In the second definition called sandwich higher regularity, we are able to introduce the higher polyadic idempotents, but their commutation does not provide uniqueness of inverses, because of the middle terms in the higher polyadic regularity conditions.


regular semigroup; inverse semigroup; polyadic semigroup; idempotent; neutral element


Computer Science and Mathematics, Algebra and Number Theory

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 22 September 2021
Commenter: Steven Duplij
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Language corrections, Theorem 1 changed, Definition 11, Proposition 1, Assertion 3 added. 
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