REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement,; endocarditis; prosthetic valve endocarditis
Online: 5 January 2023 (02:35:38 CET)
Although initially conceived for high-risk patients who are ineligible for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now recommended in a wider spectrum of indications including young patients. However, as for SAVR, TAVR is also associated with a risk of infectious complications, namely prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). As the number of performed TAVR procedure increases, and despite the low incidence of PVE post TAVR, clinicians should be familiar with the associated risk factors and the clinical presentation. Whereas the diagnosis of native valve endocarditis can be straightforward applying the modified Duke criteria, the diagnosis of PVE is more challenging given its atypical symptoms, lower sensitivity of the criteria, and low diagnostic yield of conventional echocardiography. Delay in proper management can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion and initiate proper work-up according to the severity of illness, the underlying host, and the local epidemiology of the causative organisms. The most common causative pathogens are Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. (particularly the viridans group) and, less likely Gram-negative and fungal pathogens. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance complicates the choice of therapy. There remain controversies regarding the optimal management strategies including indications for surgical interventions. Surgical assessment is recommended early in the course of illness and surgical intervention should be considered in selected patients. As in other PVE, duration of therapy depends on the isolated pathogen, the host, and the clinical response. Since TAVR is a relatively new procedure, the outcome of TAVR-PVE is yet to be fully understood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Candida; Candidemia; invasive candidiasis; Candida auris; non-albicans candida; COVID-19; antifungal susceptibility; Lebanon; Arab world; EQUAL score
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:37:02 CEST)
Invasive fungal infections, notably candidemia, have been associated with COVID-19. The epidemiology of candidemia has significantly changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to identify the microbiological profile, resistance rates, and outcomes of COVID-19 associated candidemia (CAC) compared to patients with candidemia not associated with COVID-19. We retrospectively collected data on patients with candidemia admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center between 2004 and 2022. We compared the epidemiology of candidemia during and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we compared the outcomes of critically ill patients with CAC to those with candidemia without COVID-19 from March 2020 till March 2022. Among 245 candidemia episodes, 156 occurred prior to the pandemic and 89 during the pandemic. Of the latter, 39 (43.8%) were CAC, most of which (82%) were reported from intensive care units (ICU). Non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. were predominant throughout the study period (67.7%). Candida auris infection was the most common cause of NAC spp. in CAC. C. glabrata had decreased susceptibility rates to fluconazole and caspofungin during the pandemic period (46.1% and 38.4% respectively). Mortality rate in the overall ICU population during the pandemic was 76.6%, much higher than the previously reported mortality of candidemia from previous studies at our center. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality between CAC and non-CAC (75.0% vs 78.1%; P =0.76). Performing ophthalmic examination (P = 0.002), CVC removal during the 48 hours following the candidemia (P = 0.008) and identifying the Candida spp. (P = 0.028) were significantly associated with a lower case-fatality rate. The epidemiology of candidemia has been significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic at our center. Rigorous infection control measures and proper antifungal stewardship are essential to combat highly resistant species like C. auris.