REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0016.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: bioresorbable implants; corrosion layer; vascular stents; orthopedic implants; microbial infections
Online: 11 July 2018 (13:54:04 CEST)
Medical implants made of biodegradable materials could be of advantage for temporary applications such mechanical support during bone-healing or as vascular stents to keep blood vessels open. After completion of the healing process the implant would disappear, avoiding long-term side effects or the need for surgical removal. Various corrodible metal alloys based on magnesium, iron or zinc have been proposed as sturdier and potentially less inflammatory alternative to degradable organic polymers, in particular for load-bearing applications. Despite the recent introduction of magnesium-based screws the remaining hurdles to routine clinical applications are still challenging, such as limiting mechanical material characteristics or unsuitable corrosion characteristics. Here, salient features and clinical prospects of currently investigated biodegradable implant materials are summarized with a main focus on magnesium alloys. A mechanism of action for the stimulation of bone growth due to the exertion of mechanical force by magnesium corrosion products is discussed. To explain divergent in vitro and in vivo effects of magnesium a novel model for bacterial biofilm infections is proposed which predicts crucial consequences antibacterial implant strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0292.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: bread wheat, biochar, grain yield, natural water extracts
Online: 16 July 2018 (14:38:03 CEST)
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is staple of Pakistani people. However, its yield at farmer field is low as compared with its genetic potential. Integration of various crop and soil management strategies might be an option to enhance wheat productivity at farmer field. This 2-year experiment was conducted to check the influence of combine application of natural plant water extracts and biochar on the productvity of wheat during the winter season of 2015-16. The experiment consisted of seven treatment viz. (1) control (2) application of biochar (0.18 kg pot-1) alone, (3) application of sorghum water extract (SWE) alone, (4) application of moringa water extract (MWE) alone, (5) application of biochar + SWE, (6) application of biochar + MWE, (7) application of biochar + SWE+MWE. The results revealed that application of both crop water extracts in combination with biochar improved the growth and grain yield of wheat. Use of MWE in combination with biochar enhanced the grain weight, grain number and grain yield of wheat by 44, 14, and 24%, respectively than the control treatment. In crux, use of MWE in combination with biochar might be a viable option to improve the productivity of bread wheat.