ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0566.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: BiOBr spheres; hierarchical nanostructures; photocatalysis; benzaldehyde
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:48:42 CEST)
Semiconductor photocatalytic performances can be modulated through morphology modification. Herein porous hierarchical BiOBr microspheres (BiOBr-MS) of ~3 m was firstly self-assembled without the assistance of a template via a facile solvothermal synthesis in triethylene glycol (TEG) at 150 oC for 3 h. KBrO3 was exploited as a bromine source, which slowly provided bromide ions upon reduction in TEG and controlled the growth and self-assembly of primary BiOBr nanoplates. The addition of PVP during solvothermal synthesis of BiOBr-MS reduced the particle size by about three-fold to generate BiOBr sub-microspheres (BiOBr-sMS) of <1 m. BiOBr-sMS exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activity than BiOBr-MS for aerobic photooxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) to benzaldehyde (BzH) under simulated sunlight irradiation (conversions of BzOH (50 mM) over BiOBr-sMS and BiOBr-MS were respectively 51.3% and 29.6% with 100% selectivity to BzH after Xenon illumination for 2 h at 25 oC). The photogenerated holes and •O2- were found to be main reactive species for the BzOH oxidation over BiOBr spheres by scavenging tests and spin-trapping EPR spectra. The higher photocatalytic activity of BiOBr-sMS was attributed to its more open hierarchical structure, efficient charge separation, more negative conduction band position and generation of larger amounts of •O2-.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Non-ordinary state-based Peridynamics; Compression-compression fatigue load; Multiple Cracks; Aircraft wing corner box
Online: 10 May 2022 (11:43:03 CEST)
In this work, we have developed a non-ordinary state-based peridynamic model for multiple crack initiation and propagation due to compression-compression fatigue load. In each loading cycle, the fatigue loading is redistributed among the peridynamic solid body, leading to the progressive fatigue damage initiation and propagation in an autonomous fashion. The proposed fatigue model parameters are firstly validated by 3D numerical benchmark tests, and then it is applied to simulate widespread fatigue damage evolution of the aircraft wing corner box. The modified constitutive damage model has been implemented into the peridynamics framework at finite strain. Furthermore, the criterion algorithm from multiple initiation to propagation is discussed. It is shown that the numerical results obtained from peridynamics simulations are in general agreement with those from the experiment data. The comparison of experimental and numerical results indicates that the proposed non-ordinary state-based peridynamics fatigue model has the ability to capture the multiple crack initiation and propagation and other features of the aluminium alloy material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patient; Low-phosphate meal; CKD-MBD (chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder); Proinflammatory cytokine; TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)
Online: 24 November 2021 (15:27:03 CET)
High dietary phosphate intake and poor adherence to phosphate-binding-therapy elevate the risk of hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (HD; MHD) patients. Therefore, chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) indicators increase; consequently, risks of CKD-MBDs and inflammation are elevated. This double-blind, randomized control trial intervention study was designed to investigate the possibility of reducing blood CKD-MBD indicators and modulating inflammatory indicators by consuming low-phosphate (LP) meals accompanied by a minimum dose of a calcium-based phosphate binder (CaCO3). MHD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to an LP meal group (LP group) or a control group. After initial data collection, blood collection, and dietary counseling, subjects were asked to consume a washout diet for 1 week. During the washout diet period, subjects consumed their usual diet but took 1 tablet of calcium carbonate (1CaCO3) as a phosphate binder with each meal. After the washout diet period, subjects in the LP group and control group respectively consumed LP meals and regular meals twice a day for 1 week. Meat in the LP meals was boiled before the regular cooking process, but meat in control meals was not. All meals were supplied by a central kitchen so that the contents of phosphate and other nutrients could be identified. In total, 40 MHD patients completed the study program. After 1 week of the dietary intervention, the blood Ca x P product and dietary phosphate had significantly decreased in the LP group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The LP group had significantly lower variations in dietary phosphate intake, blood calcium, Ca x P product, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than the control group by comparing differences between after the dietary intervention and the baseline (△after intervention - baseline, p<0.05). The increase in dietary phosphate intake (△3rd - 2nd dietary phosphate intake) augmented the increase in the TNF-α level by 6.24-fold (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 6.24 [1.12~34.92], p<0.05). These results highlighted the conclusion that LP meals accompanied by a minimum dose of CaCO3 downregulated pro-inflammation by reducing CKD-MBD indicators which was triggered by decreasing dietary phosphate intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: bacterial wilt; Ralstonia solanacearum; genotype-by-sequencing; disease resistance; quantitative trait loci; Solanum lycopersicum
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:35:18 CEST)
Bacterial wilt (BW), caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the major biotic factors limiting tomato production in the humid tropics. Pyramiding of resistance genes through marker-assisted selection is an efficient way to develop durable BW resistant cultivars. Tomato line ‘Hawaii 7996’ (H7996) is a stable and robust resistance source against various R. solanacearum strains. Major BW resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Bwr-12 and Bwr-6, and several minor or strain specific QTLs have been coarse-mapped in this line, but none has been fine-mapped and validated. The objective of the current study was to construct a high density genetic map using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from genotyping-by-sequencing, fine-map Bwr-12 and Bwr-6 and determine the effects of these QTLs using a near isogenic line (NIL) population. A high density genetic map using 1,604 SNP markers with an average distance of 0.82 cM was developed for 188 F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross H7996 × WVa700. A total of seven QTLs associated with BW resistance to race 1-phylotype I or/and race 3-phylotype II strains were located on chromosomes 6 (Bwr-6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4) and 12 (Bwr-12.1, Bwr-12.2 and Bwr-12.3) with logarithm of odds (LOD) scores of 6.2-15.6 and 6.2-31.1, explaining 14.2-33.4% and 15.9-53.9% of the total phenotypic variation contributed from H7996, respectively. To validate the genetic effects of the two QTL regions, a set of 80 BC3F3 NILs containing different sections of Bwr-6 with or without Bwr-12 was phenotyped for disease severity after challenge with either race 1-phylotype I Pss4 or race 3-phylotype II Pss1632 BW strains over two seasons. Bwr-6.1 specific to Pss4 and Bwr-6.3 specific to Pss1632 were mapped to an interval of 5.0 cM (P < 0.05) between 6_33,444,000_SLM6-47 and 6_33,868,000_SLM6-124 SNP marker, and to 2.7 cM (P < 0.01) between positions 6_35,949,000 _SLM6-107 to 6_36,750,000_SLM6-82 marker, respectively. In addition, the specific effect of Bwr-12 for resistance to Pss4 (LOD score of 5.8-16.1, P < 0.01) was confirmed and markers for this QTL have already been made available previously.