ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0209.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: leafy greens; spinach; metabolomics; metabolic profiling; food pathogens; biomarker discovery
Online: 12 January 2021 (08:20:35 CET)
Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) are an important cause of foodborne disease globally with many outbreaks linked to the consumption of contaminated foods such as leafy greens. Existing methods for STEC detection and isolation are time-consuming. Rapid methods may assist in preventing contaminated products from reaching consumers. This proof-of-concept study aimed to determine if a metabolomics approach could be used to detect STEC contamination in spinach. Using untargeted metabolic profiling, the bacterial pellets and supernatants arising from bacterial and inoculated spinach enrichments were investigated for the presence of unique metabolites that enabled categorization of three E. coli risk groups. A total of 109 and 471 metabolite features were identified in bacterial and inoculated spinach enrichments, respectively. Supervised OPLS-DA analysis demonstrated clear dis-crimination between bacterial enrichments containing different risk groups. Further analysis of the spinach enrichments determined that pathogen risk groups 1 and 2 could be easily discriminated from the other groups, though some clustering of risk groups 1 and 2 was observed, likely representing their genomic similarity. Biomarker discovery identified metabolites that were significantly associated with risk groups and may be appropriate targets for potential biosensor development. This study has confirmed that metabolomics can be used to identify the presence of pathogenic E. coli likely to be implicated in human disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0528.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Interactomics; host-parasite-microbiome relationships; extra-intestinal effects; D-amino ac-id/SCFA-induced modulation; Yeast ubiquinone salvation.
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:12:14 CEST)
Cryptosporidiosis is a major human health concern globally. Despite well-established methods, misdiagnosis remains common. Our understanding of the cryptosporidiosis biochemical mechanism remains limited, compounding the difficulty of clinical diagnosis. Here, we used a systems biology approach to investigate the underlying biochemical interactions in C57BL/6J mice infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Faecal samples were collected daily following infection. Blood, liver tissues and luminal contents were collected 10 days post infection (dpi). High-resolution liquid chromatography and low-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry were used to analyse the proteomes and metabolomes of these samples. Faeces and luminal contents were additionally subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the acquired data illustrated altered host and microbial energy pathways during infection. Glycolysis/citrate cycle metabolites were depleted, while short-chain fatty acids and D-amino acids accumulated. An increased abundance of bacteria associated with a stressed gut environment was seen. Host proteins involved in energy pathways and Lactobacillus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were upregulated during cryptosporidiosis. Liver oxalate also increased during infection. Microbiome-parasite relationships were observed to be more influential than the host-parasite association in mediating major biochemical changes in the mouse gut during cryptosporidiosis. Defining this parasite-microbiome interaction is the first step towards building a comprehensive cryptosporidiosis model towards biomarker discovery, and rapid and accurate diagnostics.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0323.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: COVID-19; Open-source dataset; Drug Repurposing; Database system; Web application devel-opment; software development; Drug fingerprints; Bulk upload
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:14:11 CEST)
Although various vaccines are now commercially available, they have not been able to stop the spread of COVID-19 infection completely. An excellent strategy to quickly get safe, effective, and affordable COVID-19 treatment is to repurpose drugs that are already approved for other diseases as adjuvants along with the ongoing vaccine regime. The process of developing an accurate and standardized drug repurposing dataset requires a considerable level of resources and expertise due to the commercial availability of an extensive array of drugs that could be potentially used to address the SARS-CoV-2 infection. To address this bottleneck, we created the CoviRx platform. CoviRx is a user-friendly interface that provides access to the data, which is manually curated for COVID-19 drug repurposing data. Through CoviRx, the data curated has been made open-source to help advance drug repurposing research. CoviRx also encourages users to submit their findings after thoroughly validating the data, followed by merging it by enforcing uniformity and integ-rity-preserving constraints. This article discusses the various features of CoviRx and its design principles. CoviRx has been designed so that its functionality is independent of the data it dis-plays. Thus, in the future, this platform can be extended to include any other disease X beyond COVID-19. CoviRx can be accessed at www.covirx.org.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Therapeutics; Drug Repurposing; 3D Tissue Models
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:24:22 CEST)
The repurposing of licenced drugs for use against COVID-19 is one of the most rapid ways to develop new and alternative therapeutic options to manage the ongoing pandemic. Given the approximately 8,000 licenced compounds available from Compounds Australia that can be screened, this paper demonstrates the utility of commercially-available ex vivo/3D airway and alveolar tissue models. These models are a closer representation of in vivo studies compared to in vitro models, but retain the benefits of rapid in vitro screening for drug efficacy. We demonstrate that several existing drugs appear to show anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity against both Delta and Omicron Variants of Concern in the airway model. In particular, fluvoxamine, as well as aprepitant, everolimus, and sirolimus have virus reduction efficacy comparable to the current standard of care (remdesivir, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir). Whilst these results are encouraging, further testing and efficacy studies are required before clinical use can be considered.