ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Galactic dynamics; Spiral structure; Bared spiral structure; Density wave; Gravitational retarded potential
Online: 27 February 2020 (16:10:59 CET)
Most fully developed galaxies have vivid spiral structure, but the formation and evolution of spiral structure is still a mystery that is not fully understood in astrophysics. We find that the currently used equations of galactic dynamics contain some unreasonable components. In this paper, the following three working assumptions are introduced to simplify the galactic structural equations. 1. In the research of large-scale structure, the retarded potential of the gravitational field should be taken into account. The propagating time of the gravitational field from center to border is longer than the revolution periods of the stars near the center of galaxy. Newton's gravitational potential is unreasonable for such case, and the weak field and low velocity approximation of Einstein's field equation should be adopted. 2. The stars in a fully developed galaxy should be zero-pressure and inviscid fluid, and the equation of motion is different from that of ordinary continuum mechanics. Stars move along geodesics. 3. The structure of the galaxy is only related to the total mass density distribution. The equation of state of dark halo is different from that of ordinary luminous interstellar matter, so their trajectories are also very different. Dark halo and ordinary matter in galaxy are automatically separated. The total mass density distribution can be presupposed according to the observation data, and then it can be determined by comparing the solution of the equations with the observed data. These assumptions and treatments are supported by theory and observation. The variables of the equations of simplified galactic dynamics are separated from each other, and the equations are well-posed and can be solved according to a definite procedure. Therefore, this simplified dynamic equation system provides a more reasonable and practical framework for the further study of galactic structure, and can solve many practical problems. Besides, it is closely related to the study of dark energy and dark matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0374.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: stochastic differential equation; retarded control system; time optimal control; admissible set; analytic semigroup.
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:12:01 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to find the time optimal control to a target set for semilinear stochastic functional differential equations involving time delays or memories under general conditions on a target set and nonlinear terms even though the equations contain unbounded principal operators. Our research approach is construct a fundamental solution for corresponding linear systems and establish variations of constant formula of solutions for given stochastic equations. The existence result of time optimal controls for one point target set governed by the given semilinear stochastic equation is also established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0400.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Classical relativistic dynamics; Static interatomic potentials; Retarded interactions; Irreversibility phenomenon; Probability-free kinetics; Klein-Gordon equation; Principle of causality
Online: 26 October 2022 (05:38:05 CEST)
A method is proposed for describing the dynamics of systems of interacting particles in terms of an auxiliary field, which in the static mode is equivalent to given interatomic potentials, and in the dynamic mode is a classical relativistic composite field. It is established that for interatomic potentials, the Fourier transform of which is a rational algebraic function of the wave vector, the auxiliary field is a composition of elementary fields that satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation with complex masses. The interaction between particles carried by the auxiliary field is nonlocal both in space variables and in time. The temporal non-locality is due to the dynamic nature of the auxiliary field and can be described in terms of functional-differential equations of retarded type. Due to the finiteness mass of the auxiliary field, the delay in interactions between particles can be arbitrarily large. A qualitative analysis of the dynamics of few-body and many-body systems with retarded interactions has been carried out, and a non-statistical mechanisms for both the thermodynamic behavior of systems and synergistic effects has been established.