ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: membrane potential; Nernst equation; ion adsorption; surface charge; surface potential
Online: 16 May 2022 (08:12:52 CEST)
Although there is a common physiological notion that the origin of the membrane potential is attributed to transmembrane ion transport, it is theoretically possible to explain its generation by the mechanism of ion adsorption. It was previously suggested that the ion adsorption mechanism led even to the potential formulas which are even identical to either the famous Nernst equation or Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Our further analysis shown in this paper indicates that the potential formula based on the ion adsorption mechanism leads to one equation which is the function of material surface charge density and the material surface potential. Furthermore, we confirmed that the equation holds in all the different experimental systems we studied. Although we have not succeeded in elucidating why such an equation is established, the equation appears to be the key equation governing the characteristics of the membrane potential regardless of the systems in question.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz eq.; Nernst eq.; ion adsorption; membrane potential
Online: 6 April 2022 (08:37:53 CEST)
Current physiology attributes the mechanism of membrane potential generation to transmembrane ion transport, but ion adsorption could just as well play this fundamental role. The evidence shows that the ion adsorption mechanism accurately reproduces the experimentally measured membrane potential. The Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (GHK eq.) and the Nernst equation (Nernst eq.) are the typical mathematical formulas representing the membrane potential in current physiology. However, the authors were able to show that the potential formulas by ion adsorption mechanism give identical results to GHK eq. and Nernst. eq. Our experimental and theoretical analyses suggest that there is a special relationship between the membrane potential and the membrane surface charge density, and this unique equation inevitably leads to the establishment of a GHK eq and/or a Nernst eq. The authors found that the unique equation is the foundation of thermodynamics “Boltzmann distribution”. Thus, the GHK eq. and the Nernst eq. are simply the natural consequence of thermodynamics from the view of the ion adsorption mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: membrane potential; water; adsorption; structured water
Online: 30 August 2022 (06:00:56 CEST)
The occurrence of potential spikes in a cell is a sign of life, and it is called action potential. There is a common notion that neuron signal conduction is the conduction of action potential. Hence, action potential is a typical and essential life activity. However, such potential spikes occur even in simple nonliving systems. According to the experimental observations by Pollack, structured water molecules can generate a negative potential environment. From this observation, the potential spike generation process for both living and nonliving systems caused by ion and water molecule adsorption-desorption process could be explained in this paper. So, taking into consideration the electrically neutral water molecules,the action potential generation mechanism could be explained. It is a fully inanimate model. Hence, the action potential may not be a life activity. Here, the role of water molecules in life is investigated further. It was found that the phase transition of the membrane is involved in the neuron signal conduction, but the membrane phase transition could be due to the change of state of the water molecules, which forms a large-scale structure in the cavities created by a number of lipids.