REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Sleep deprivation; Cytokines; curcumin; nano – curcumin
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:06:44 CET)
In this review, the following information describes the manifestation of sleep deprivation by human beings and its adverse effect on their health. Sleep deprivation has been demonstrated into namely two types known as REM sleep and NREM sleep affecting our health in so a problematic way that it is making our body immune to many diseases leading to lethal problems. Therefore, great research by many scientists has discovered that the turmeric “Curcuma longa” which is been used in every Indian kitchen since ancient times, has shown a remarkable effect on the problem caused by sleep deprivation but due to its poor solubility and low bioavailability drawn it into a great disadvantage. But the help of the study of nanotechnology and the evolution of curcumin into nano–curcumin made the possibility of the remarkable effect by making the curcumin more potent and enhancing its stability. Immunological changes due to sleep deprivation lead to Alzheimer’s disease, glioma, neuropathic pains, and many more. Therefore, this review has been summarized as it is been providing information related to curcumin and its affection for sleep deprivation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Leishmaniasis; drugs; parasites; ; herbal plants; treatments
Online: 10 November 2022 (06:44:40 CET)
Leishmaniasis is considered one of the different neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization. Over the past few decades to tackle leishmaniasis, effective and novel drugs have progressed. But few are expensive some other medication shows poor effects and few drugs with long treatment lead to cause resistance. But it is very important to start a better medication against leishmania so researchers came to the front of the utilization of natural products which are considered a better option. Finding active compounds in medicinal plants is another alternative to currently accessible medications. Materials and methods: This study examined and reported the far more potential natural products used to treat disease caused by Leishmania spp. Leishmaniasis, plant metabolites, in vivo, in vitro, and treatment against leishmaniasis have been used as search terms in the Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct databases, and only papers published between 2015 and 2021 have been chosen for further analysis. Results: The use of novel natural compounds with leishmanicidal action as well as the leishmanicidal activity of natural compounds against promastigote, axenic, and intracellular amastigote forms were included in roughly 20 research papers that were reviewed.Conclusion: Due to their capacity to selectively target parasites without harming host cell viability, herbal plants are a possible source of new anti-leishmanial medication. Future leishmaniasis treatments will draw on the isolated compounds as a source, completing those already offered in clinics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Drug Resistant; Management; Awareness
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:00:05 CEST)
Background: Although Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest diseases known to mankind, many practitioners are still unaware of various aspects of management of TB including drug resistant TB. To be able to make an impact on the disease burden we need to understand the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of practitioners, both in government and private sector, towards TB case management. Methodology: A random cross-sectional survey of 99 respondents to assess the KAP towards TB case management using a digital semi-structured questionnaire which was pre-tested and administered to allopathic practitioners from across States in North and Central India. Results: 77% responders were government doctors and 23% were private practitioners. Chest physicians accounted for 61% of the responders. 26% of government and 78% of private doctors relied on sources which are difficult to validate for their knowledge on drug resistant TB management. There were large variations seen in knowledge on modes of transmission, standard precautions, extent of drug resistant TB, diagnostics as well as treatment regimen for drug resistant TB. Conclusion: The knowledge of both sector doctors especially amongst private practitioners with respect to the awareness of extent, diagnosis, and treatment and infection control measures for drug resistant TB is suboptimal which translates to poor diagnostic, therapeutic and infection control choices amongst private practitioners. If India has to achieve the targets for TB Elimination by 2025, serious work needs to be done to upgrade the knowledge of the private sector doctors on drug resistant tuberculosis. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GoI needs to have regular educational programs for the private practitioners coupled with awareness campaigns and frequent surveys to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices being followed in the private sector for TB management including drug resistant TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1380.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Antibiotics; Surveillance; India; Taiwan
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:01:35 CEST)
Human exposure to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through food is now very imperfectly understood, creating a significant gap in the design of interventions. The interchange of AMR genes and the transfer of AMR bacteria from animals to humans through the food chain necessitate comprehensive methods to risk reduction. With a focus on AMR in bacterial species isolated from food products, foods (of both animal and non-animal origin), and ambient samples, the current meta-analysis gathered up-to-date information on the epidemiology of AMR in animal-source food chain. As a result, the combined prevalence of AMR across the various food sources was calculated. From the 18,784 food samples obtained as a result of selected publications, 7,676 (40.9%) samples were contaminated, including 4343 (56.6%) and 3363 (43.4%) samples from Taiwan and India, respectively. Meat (chicken, pork, and beef), fish and milk all have moderate to medium potential for AMR exposure to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens such S. aureus, Clostridium, E. coli, Salmonella, etc. Antibiotic resistance to β-lactam, fluoroquinolone, carbapenem etc, is present in the majority of food samples. The results of this study emphasize the persistent danger of antimicrobial residue in animal-derived foods in Taiwan, India, and other nations with comparable customs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Antibiotic; antimicrobial resistance (AMR); One-Health; economic; nanotechnology; policy
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:55:31 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health concern worldwide, and it poses a significant threat to human, animal, and environmental health. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics have contributed significantly to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, which may lead to significant economic consequences like reduced productivity and increased healthcare costs. Nanotechnology offers a promising platform for addressing this challenge. Nanoparticles have unique properties that make them highly effective in combating bacterial infections by inhibiting the growth and survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria in three areas of health: human, animal, and environmental. To conduct an economic evaluation of surveillance in this context, it is crucial to have a comprehension of the connections to be addressed by several nations by implementing national action policies based on the One Health strategy. This review provides an overview of the progress made thus far and presents potential future directions to optimize the impact of nanobiotics on AMR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1955.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Egg shortage; Poultry supply chain; Influenza; Economic crisis; One Health surveillance
Online: 29 May 2023 (03:59:14 CEST)
Poultry eggs are a critical source of protein, vitamins, and minerals for people worldwide; facing the current global egg shortage is a significant concern. The shortage results from various factors, including avian flu outbreaks, changes in consumer demand, and supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The economic crisis caused by the pandemic has also impacted the availability and affordability of eggs, particularly in low-income countries. The global egg shortage has implications for public health, particularly for vulnerable populations who rely on eggs for essential nutrients. One Health, an approach that recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, provides a useful framework for understanding and addressing the egg shortage. One Health approaches to the egg shortage involve collaboration between agriculture and environmental sectors to address the root causes of the lack and ensure the sustainable production and distribution of eggs. Addressing the global egg shortage requires a multifaceted approach considering the complex social, economic, and environmental factors. One Health perspectives offer a way to understand and address the interconnected factors contributing to the shortage to ensure access to affordable, nutritious eggs for all in a healthy way
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Leishmania donovani; Geographical; Temporal diversity; Epidemic; Transmission cycle
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a global spread that affects both domestic and wild animals in addition to people. Leishmania donovani is the suspected anthroponotic cause of VL in India, where it is an endemic disease. The reservoir hosts play a crucial role in the life cycle of the Leishmania parasite. The complicated connection between the pathogen, vector, and reservoir exhibits geographical and temporal diversity. Human-to-human and, to a lesser extent, human-to-animal transmission is the principal mechanism for the maintenance of anthroponotic diseases. Scope and approach: A deliberate, systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar using keywords such as "Leishmania donovani," "zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis," and "wild animal reservoir for leishmania donovani." 530 potentially significant references were obtained from these 507 were disallowed due to copy avoidance, irrelevant titles, research publications from nations other than India, or modified compositions. The remaining 20 investigations were later rejected because they did not meet the criteria for inclusion. Finally 3 research papers with 867 goats, 161 cattles, 106 chickens, 26 sheep, 3 buffaloes, 406 dogs and 309 rats were reported. Conclusion: According to the review, goats are the epidemic's primary host and possible reservoir in several regions of India. In the endemic regions of the disease, some species of rodents along with the canines appear to be maintaining the L. donovani transmission cycle.