ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; STAT3; S3I-1757; nanoparticle; CD38
Online: 11 January 2019 (15:40:51 CET)
STAT3 is an oncoprotein which has been shown to contribute to drug resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). Nonetheless, the clinical utility of STAT3 inhibitors in treating MM has been limited, partly related to some of their pharmacologic properties. To overcome these challenges, our group had previously packaged STAT3 inhibitors using a novel formulation of nanoparticles (NP) and found encouraging results. In this study, we aimed to further improve the pharmacologic properties of these NP by decorating them with monoclonal anti-CD38 antibodies. NP loaded with S3I-1757 (a STAT3 inhibitor), labeled as S3I-NP, were generated. S3I-NP decorated with anti-CD38 (labeled as CD38-S3I-NP) were found to have a similar nanoparticular size, drug encapsulation and loading as S3I-NP. The release of S3I-1757 at 24 hours was also similar between the two formulations. Using Cy5.5 labeling of the NP, we found that the decoration of anti-CD38 on these NP significantly increased the cellular uptake by two MM cell lines (p<0.001). Accordingly, CD38-S3I-NP showed a significantly lower inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) compared to S3I-NP in two IL6-stimulated MM cell lines (p<0.001). In a xenograft mouse model, CD38-S3I-NP significantly reduced the tumor size by 4 folds compared to S3I-NP on day 12 after drug administration (p=0.006). The efficacy of CD38-S3I-NP in suppressing STAT3 phosphorylation in the xenografts was confirmed by using immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. In conclusion, our study suggests that the decoration of anti-CD38 on NP loaded with STAT3 inhibitors can further improve their therapeutic effects against MM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0151.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 3D culture; multiple myeloma; STAT; bortezomib; CETSA; stattic
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:32:11 CEST)
Malignant cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) models have been found to be phenotypically and biochemically different from their counterparts cultured conventionally. Since most of these studies employed solid tumor types, how 3D culture affects multiple myeloma (MM) cells is not well understood. Here, we compared MM cells (U266 and RPMI8226) in a 3D culture model with those in conventional culture. While the conventionally cultured cells were present in single cells or small clusters, MM-3D cells grew in large spheroids. We discovered that STAT3 was the pathway that was more activated in 3D in both cell lines. The active form of STAT3 (phospho-STAT3 or pSTAT3), which was absent in MM cells cultured conventionally, became detectable after 1-2 days in 3D culture. This elevated pSTAT3 level was dependent on the 3D environment, since it disappeared after transferring to conventional culture. STAT3 inhibition using a pharmacological agent, Stattic, significantly decreased the cell viability of MM cells and sensitized them to bortezomib in 3D culture. Using an oligonucleotide array, we found that 3D culture significantly increased the expression of several known STAT3 downstream genes implicated in oncogenesis. Since most primary MM tumors are naturally STAT3-active, studies of MM in 3D culture can generate results that are more representative of the disease.