ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0153.v1
Online: 9 December 2021 (13:12:10 CET)
This study evaluated the ranking of comprehensibility of the pictograms for judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling used in the six games from the 27th Sydney Olympics in 2000 to the 32nd Tokyo Olympics in 2021. The evaluation was done using the Fuzzy TOPSIS method, one of the multi-criteria decision-making methodologies commonly used in economics and others fields. The results are as follows. The first, pictograms from the 2008 Beijing Olympics ranked first in three sports: taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling, but there were no pictograms that consistently ranked first or sixth in all sports. Second, the result of the sensitivity analysis shows a possibility that the ranking will be reversed if the weight of the evaluation factors changes, but in the 1000-time repetitive prediction, the better the evaluation ranking, the closer the value of the priority ranking to the ideal solution on average even if the weight changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Twitter; Spatiotemporal analysis; Mega-events; Olympic Games
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:25:23 CEST)
Olympic Games have a huge impact on the cities where they are held, both during the actual celebration of the event and before and after it. This study presents a new approach based on spatial analysis, GIS, and data coming from Location Based Social Networks to model the spatiotemporal dimension of impacts associated with the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. Geolocalized data from Twitter are used to analyze the activity pattern of users from two different viewpoints. The first monitors the activity of Twitter users during the event -the arrival of visitors, where they came from, and the use resident and tourist made of different areas of the city. The second assesses the spatiotemporal use of the city by Twitter users before the event, compared to the use during and after the event. The results not only reveal which spaces were the most used while the Games were being held but also changes in the urban dynamics after the Games. Both approaches can be used to assess the impacts of mega-events and to improve the management and allocation of urban resources such as transport and public services infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: elite athletes; olympic sailors; body temperature; heat adaptation
Online: 27 April 2021 (11:41:24 CEST)
Objective On the eve of the summer Olympic Games in Tokyo research focus has shifted on the core temperature responses of elite athletes competing in the heat. In the absence of the field data of core temperature during Olympic sailing competition aim of the present study was to identify core temperature response during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Test Event. Methods Four elite athletes from Olympic sailing (177.5±5.2 cm, 71.1±7.4 kg, body mass index 22.5±1.4 kg/m2, 24.8±3.7 yrs, VO2max 50.6±7.2 mL/min/kg)): 2 males and 2 females participated in the study. Core temperature was recorded using e-Celsius ingestible capsules, heart rate using a heart rate monitor. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were measured using portable meteo station. Results Core temperature was recorded at water environment via an ingestible capsule in 4 sailors during the training (T), and competition (C), respectively. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were hot and humid: during training temperature were 30.9°C±1.7°C and relative humidity 81.4%±2.8%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 41°C±4°C and during competition temperature was 31.2°C±2.3°C and relative humidity 87.2%±4.4%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 45.2°C±8.9°C. Core temperature increased during training reaching higher peak values (38.6°C±0.4°C) and during competition (38.9°C±0.4°C). The highest temperature recorded was 39.4°C (C). Conclusion The current study provides unique information into the core temperature parameters under heat stress in elite Olympic sailors during training and race event.
LETTER | doi:10.3390/sci1010018
Online: 18 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (B3M-IR) is built and used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the city of Beijing during Olympic Games in 2008. A short description of the instrument is first provided in this paper. A detailed spectral analysis is then presented. The total columns of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are retrieved from the ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded by the B3M-IR during the Olympic Games. Lacking validation data, only the retrieved total column of O3 is compared with that retrieved by MAX-DOAS, which is deployed at the same station. The mean difference between the two methods of measurement is 6.5%, demonstrating the performance and reliability of B3M-IR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: network analysis; attractions network; gangneung; mega event; 2018 winter olympic; host city
Online: 13 August 2018 (08:49:26 CEST)
One of the most serious concerns about mega event-related changes to small cities is how to effectively utilize newly developed public attractions after the Olympic Games. Making connections with existing local amenities and forming attraction networks can be effective strategies for continuing a city’s revitalization. However, despite the expected benefits, attraction network research shows that these benefits often fail to materialize. With the case of Gangneung, a 2018 winter Olympic hosting city, this study investigated visitation patterns to nineteen selected attractions using network analysis. The results indicate that the most influential nodes are located on the northern coast, the eastern coast, and in the south downtown area, those nodes being the central locations where the strongest of connections are made. New attractions such as the Olympic Park and Walwha Linear Park were rather isolated. While seasonal and periodic variations, visitors’ residences, and destination choice attitudes had a significant effect on visitation patterns, the attraction networks, modes of transportation, proximity to region, and type similarity were not significant factors in the forming of visitation patterns. The results make a methodological contribution to tourist behavior and network research. In addition, beyond individual attraction development, the results provide practical implications in regard to networking and cooperation between multiple attractions using temporal and spatial strategies such as management/investment prioritizing, travel route development, and program scheduling.