ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0153.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Pathogens host; zoonotic disease; rodents; Bartonella; Borrelia crocidurae; Anaplasmataceae; Piroplasmida; Hepatozoon.
Online: 11 February 2020 (15:22:11 CET)
Rodents are known to be reservoir hosts for at least 60 zoonotic diseases and are known to play an important role in their transmission and spreading in different ways. We sampled different rodent communities within and around human settlements in Northern Senegal, an area subjected to major environmental transformations associated with global changes. Herein, we conducted an epidemiological study on their bacterial communities.One hundred and seventy-one (171) invasive and native rodents were captured, 50 from outdoors trapping sites and 121 rodents from indoors habitats, consisting on 5 species. DNA of thirteen pathogens have been successfully screened on the rodent’s spleens. We found: 2.3% of positive spleens to Piroplasmida and amplified one which gives a potentially new species Candidatus “Theileria senegalensis”; 9.35% of Bartonella spp. and amplified 10, giving three genotypes. 3.5% of filariasis species; 18.12% of Anaplasmataceae species and amplified only 5, giving a new potential species Candidatus “Ehrlichia senegalensis”; 2.33 % of Hepatozoon spp.; 3.5% of Kinetoplastidae spp; and 15.2% of Borrelia spp. and amplified 8 belonging all to Borrelia crocidurae.Some of the species of pathogens carried by the rodents of our studied area may be unknown because most of those we have identified are new species. In one bacterial taxon, Anaplasma, a positive correlation between host body mass and infection was found. Overall, male and invasive rodents appeared less infected than female and native ones, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: canine vector-borne diseases; mosquito-borne diseases; dirofilariosis; ehrlichiosis; leishmaniosis; dogs; multi-modal prophylaxis; Corsica
Online: 8 July 2020 (12:03:53 CEST)
With a mild Mediterranean-type climate, Corsica is endemic for canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) such as dirofilariosis (a mosquitoes borne-diseases: MBDs), leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis. The aim of this present study was to evaluate a monthly multi-modal prophylactic strategy (MMP) against CVBDs occurring in Corsica. The study was conducted as a comparative field trial in which eighty dogs allocated into two groups were included: (i) Group 1 consisted of 25 dogs under the MMP [per-os administration of 1.5 tablet of milbemycine oxime-praziquantel and a topical line-on application of a 3.6 mL solution of dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen] and (ii) Group 2 under various real-life prophylactic treatment (RLP) based on the use of ectoparasiticide products [different formulations: deltamethrin, fluralaner, fipronil] and/or macrocyclic lactones based-products [milbemycin oxime/praziquantel, milbemycin oxime, moxidectin] during the period ranging from June to October 2017. All animals were followed for one year and had blood drawn at day 0, followed by follow-up at 6 and 12 months. Samples were screened for filariosis using molecular tools as well as for leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). At the end of the study, no new cases of CVBDs were recorded within Group 1. In Group 2, the cumulative incidence of CVBDs was 20.0% (n= 11; p= 0.015) including dirofilarioses due to Dirofilaria immitis and/or D. repens, with 16.4% (n= 9; p=0.027). Ehrlichiosis was 5.5% (n= 3; p=0.241). No new cases of leishmaniosis were detected in Group 2. The data illustrated that, unlike the RLP treatment which failed to protect at least 20% of dogs, the MMP based on the concurrent administration of milbemycine oxime-praziquantel and dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen is efficient to protect dogs against CVBDs in a high-risk area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0454.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Head lice, haplogroup E, PHUM540560 gene, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Acinetobacter spp., Guinea.
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:22:55 CET)
Pediculus humanus capitis, the head louse, is an obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite that occurs in six divergent mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, B, F, C and E), each exhibiting a particular geographic distribution. A few years ago, several studies reported the presence of different pathogenic agents in head lice specimens from different clades collected worldwide. These findings suggest that head louse could be a vector for dangerous diseases and therefore a serious public health problem. Herein, we aimed to study the mitochondrial genetic diversity, the PHUM540560 gene polymorphisms profile of head lice collected in Guinea, as well as to screen for the pathogens present in these lice. In 2018, a total of 155 head lice were collected from 49 individuals at the Medicals Centers of rural (Maférinyah village) and urban (Kindia city) areas, in Guinea. All head lice were subjected to genetic analysis and screened for the presence of several pathogens using molecular tools. The results showed that all head lice belonged to the haplogroups C/E using the duplex qPCR which detects both clades. Standard PCR and sequencing revealed that all specimens belonged to the haplogroup E, including 8 haplotypes, whither 6 new identified for the first time in this study. The study of the PHUM540560 gene polymorphisms in our Guinean head lice revealed that 7/40 (17.5%) of our tested samples exhibit three different polymorphism profiles compared to the clade A-head lice PHUM540560 gene profile, while the remaining specimens 33/40 (82,5%) showed the same PHUM540560 gene polymorphism profile as the previously reported clade A-body lice. Molecular investigations of the targeted pathogens revealed only the presence of Acinetobacter species in 9% of our samples using real time PCR. Sequencing results identified highlighted the presence of several Acinetobacter species, including Acinetobacter baumannii (14.3%), Acinetobacter nosocomialis (14.3%), Acinetobacter variabilis (14.3%), Acinetobacter haemolyticus (7.2%), Acinetobacter towneri (7.2%). Furthermore, a candidate new species of Acinetobacter sp. (7.2%) was detected. Positive specimens were collected from 24,5% individuals in Maférinyah. We also investigated in our study the carbapenem’s-resistant profile of A. baumannii, none of our specimens were positive for the following resistance genes blaOXA-21, blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to report the existence of the Guinean haplogroup E, the PHUM540560 gene polymorphism profile as well as the presence of Acinetobacter species in head lice collected from Guinea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: enterovirus; nonhuman primates; humans; genetic recombination; emergence; Republic of Congo
Online: 2 September 2020 (08:49:42 CEST)
Enteroviruses (EVs) are viruses of the family Picornaviridae that cause mild to severe infections in humans and in several animal species, including nonhuman primates (NHPs). We conducted a survey and characterization of enteroviruses circulating between humans and great apes in the Congo. Fecal samples (N=24) of gorillas and chimpanzees living close to or distant from humans in three Congolese parks were collected, as well as from healthy humans (N=38) living around and within these parks. Enterovirus were detected in 29.4% gorilla and 13.15% human feces, including wild and human-habituated gorillas, local humans and eco-guards. Two identical strains were isolated from two humans come from two remote regions. Their genomes were similar and all genes showed their close similarity to Coxsackieviruses except for 3C, 3D and 5’UTR region where they were most similar to poliovirus 1 and 2, suggesting recombination. Recombination events were found between these strains, poliovirus 1 and 2 and EV-C99. The same EV- C species detected in both humans and apes in different regions suggest a clonal distribution of the virus in Congo.