REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0035.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: brassica; food odour preference; HIPVs; Plutella xylostella; trap crop
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:00:57 CEST)
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is very destructive crucifers specialized pest that has resulted in significant crop losses worldwide. The pest is well attracted to glucosinolate-containing crucifers such as; Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae), and generally to other plants in the genus Barbarea. B. vulgaris on their part, build up resistance against DBM and other herbivorous insects using glucosinolates; that are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense–contained only in plants of the order Brassicales. Aside glucosinolates, plants in this genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) also contain saponins; which is toxic to insects and act as feeding deterrents for plant herbivores, most importantly, DBM, as it was found to prevent the survival of DBM larvae on the plant. Saponins are plant secondary metabolites have been established in higher concentrations in younger in contrast to older leaves within the same plant. Previous studies have found a relationship between ontogenetical changes in the host plant’s saponin content and attraction/resistance to P. xylostella. The younger leaves recorded higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins, which naturally attracts the plant herbivores. DBM was reported to have evolved mechanisms to avoid the toxicity of the former. The plant-herbivore had adapted glucosinolates for host plant recognition, feeding and oviposition stimulants. Despite the adaptation for oviposition by P. xylostella adults, larvae of the insect cannot survive on the same plant. An example is in some varieties of B. vulgaris. The triterpenoid saponins which act as feeding deterrents in larvae are responsible for this direct defense mechanism against P. xylostella. In the future, trials by plant breeders could aim at transferring this insect resistance to other crops. The previous trials had limited because of lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of saponins. Herein, we discussed exclusively; saponins mediated plant defense mechanisms against the DBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Heterogeneous Cellular Networks; Deliberate Jamming; Inter-cell Interference; Independent Homogenous Poisson Point Process; Coverage Probability; Reverse Frequency Allocation
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:57:04 CEST)
The demand of high data rate and ubiquitous coverage in heterogeneous cellular (HetNets) is increasing progressively. In order to meet this demand, sophisticated model having applied interference reduction scheme and cell association technique is needed. The small base station (sBS)are deployed inside the broadcasting area of macro base station (mBS), in heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets). Since mBS has high transmission power therefore a large number of users get connected with mBS. This causes disproportion of load distribution across the HetNets. For load balancing users from high power mBS are migrated to low power sBS to increase network capacity and to decrease the load from mBS. This results in interference in the communication signal because of strong mBS Interference. Hence, we need interference management technique to mitigate interference and user association and to efficiently use sBSs’ resources. Inter-cell interference (ICI) limit the HetNets’ performance. Additionally, there exist deliberate jamming interference which depends on jammers transmission power and its proximity with the target, which notably degrades the network performance. In this paper, we employ reverse frequency allocation scheme (RFA) to reduce inter cell interference, deliberate jamming interference and to accomplish load balancing. The proposed setup is analyzed inquisitively and with the help of simulations. The result shows reduction in interferences as well as balance of load distribution in the network achieved by employing RFA scheme together with cell association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Clinical Skills; Clinical Training; Competency; Cross-sectional Studies; Dental Education; Dentistry; Self-perception.
Online: 4 January 2023 (08:48:49 CET)
The transition from undergraduate dental student to the actual practicing dentist is a crucial phase and ensuring the preparedness of graduates for the complexity and demands of contempo-rary dental practice is a challenging task. This study aimed to evaluate the self-perceived prepar-edness of undergraduate dental students and house officers in the dental colleges of Pakistan. Cross-sectional national study was planned to collect the information from dental students and new graduates in Pakistan. The pre-validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale (DU-PAS) was used. Purposive sampling technique was utilized to recruit house officers and undergraduate dental students from 27 dental schools in Pakistan. The data analysis was car-ried out using the R statistical environment for Windows (R Core Team, 2015). The total of 862 responses with 642 females and 219 males were analyzed in the study. Overall, clinical skills score was 30.56+9.08 and score for soft skills was 30.54+10.6. The mean age of the participants was 23.42+1.28. Deficiencies were reported in various soft skills and clinical skills attributes.The results highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of dental students and new graduates in Pakistani den-tal institutions. The findings may be used to further develop and strengthen teaching and training of dental students in Pakistan.