Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon; atomic structure; electron-dynamics; potential energy; force-exertion; atomic binding
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of its element. They include different opinions for scientific problems and discuss fairly at convincing and compelling levels within the scope and application. A gas-state carbon atom converts into various states depending on its conditions of processing. The electron transfer mechanism in the gas-state carbon atom is responsible to convert it into various states, namely, graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The shape of ‘energy trajectory’ enables transferring electrons from the left- and right-sides of an atom is like a parabola. That ‘energy trajectory’ is linked to states (filled state and suitable nearby unfilled state) where force-exertion along the poles of transferring electrons is remained balance. So, the mechanism of originating different states of a gas-state carbon atom is under the involvement of energy first. This is not the case for atoms executing confined inter-state electron-dynamics as the force is involved first. Graphite-, nanotube- and fullerene-state atoms ‘partially evolve partially develop’ (form) their structures. These possess one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional ordering of atoms, respectively. Their structural formation also comprises ‘energy curve’ having a shape-like parabola. Transferring suitable filled state electron to suitable nearby unfilled state is under a balance force exerting along the poles. The graphite structure under only attained-dynamics of atoms can also be formed but in two-dimension. Here, binding energy between graphite-state carbon atoms is for a small difference of exerting forces along their opposite poles. Structural formation in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve energy to gain required infinitesimal displacements of electrons through which they maintain orientationally-controlled exerting forces along dedicated poles. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to east-west (ground) where atoms bound ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge for a bi-electron ground to just-south topological structure. The growth of graphene is found to be north to ground where atoms bound ground to north. Thus, graphene atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure where, tri-layers of gas-, graphite- and lonsdaleite-state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. Nanoscale hardness is also sketched based on different force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0028.v9
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: heat energy; photon energy; fundamental forces; nanoscale phenomenon; atomic scale phenomenon; electron scale phenomenon
Online: 8 December 2017 (03:46:45 CET)
Technology is in the way to reach in its climax but the basic understanding of science in many phenomena is still awaited even though the nature witnesses it. Scientific research reveals strong analogy between photon and electron. When an atom deals neutral state, it levitates electron of outer ring from the back surface while placing the bit-energy at front surface. Gravitation behavior of that electron starts at the centre of relaxation point by including the force of side pole where the pulling force of nearby unfilled state of that atom from the front surface results into depict forcing energy shape like Gaussian distribution symbol with both ends turned called unit photon. The inertia is being involved at each stage of changing direction of that electron by introducing the disappearances of forces of two poles against the appearances of forces of two opposite poles during rest to motion and motion to rest in the first half-cycle. The same is the case in the second half-cycle of that electron during rest to motion and motion to rest but it is under different introduction of the disappearances of forces against appearances of forces. However, at stage of levitating or gravitating period of electron, only one force is being involved at one time where the opposite force is disappeared. The uninterrupted confined inter-state electron-dynamics of atom under the availability of several bits of bit-energy results into generate forcing energy shape like a wave. Two bits of bit-energy where shape of bit for first half-cycle is like integral symbol and second half-cycle is like opposite integral symbol which are being placed along the configuring trajectory of inter-state electron-dynamics during forward-direction cycle and two bits of bit-energy shape in opposite order are being placed along the trajectory of inter-state electron-dynamics during back-direction cycle. Generating forcing energy of unit photon in each cycle is pushing to the rear side by remaining connected till the electron is not restoring the state of rest. Silicon atom is considered as a model system under neutral state. Uninterrupted confined inter-state electron-dynamics result into generate forcing energy that can travel immeasurable length and unavailability of necessitating bit-energy at any interrupted stage result into generate an overt photon. Inter-state electron-dynamics for at least two cycles generate an overt photon –a photon length twice to unit photon. Under certain interaction of unit photon, it divides equally into two bits of bit-energy instead of dividing into tits and bits of heat. The mechanism of generating photon characteristic current by the electron of neutral state atom validates that atoms are four-dimensional discs at centre of dealing no force. An isolated electron is being grounded under directed forcing energy to impinge a neutral state atom where the gained instantaneous velocity under merged energy resulting into distort atom at that point. Matter changes the role of energy and force under various sorts of interactions. Here, heat energy and photon energy explore matter at atomic and electron levels, thus, devise basis of science to describe.
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: fundamental science; atomic nature; hard coating; expansion and contraction; force-energy behavior; surface and interface
Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
Coating of suitable materials having thickness of few atoms to several microns on a substrate is of great interest to the scientific community. Hard coatings develop under the significant composition of suitable-natured atoms where their force-energy behaviors when in certain transition state favour binding. In the binding mechanism of suitable atoms, electron belonging to outer ring filled state of gas-atom undertakes another clamp of energy knot belonging to outer ring unfilled state of solid-atom. Set process conditions develop the binding of different-natured atoms when processing their suitable composition in a system. Atoms of different nature develop structure in the form of hard coating by locating their ground points between the original ones. Here, gas-natured atoms increase the potential energy under decreasing levitational force of electrons, whereas, solid-natured atoms decrease the potential energy under decreasing gravitational force of electrons. In TiN coating, Ti–Ti atoms bind under the difference of expansion of their lattices, called nets of energy knots, where one atom just lands on the already landed atom. An adhered N-atom to a Ti-atom forms its position among four Ti-atoms where N-atom occupies the interstitial site of Ti-atoms. Two oppositely working force-energy behavior atoms deposit in the form of coating at substrate surface as per set conditions of the process. The rate of ejecting (or dissociating) solid-natured atoms depend on the nature of their source (target), process parameters and processing technique. In random arc-based vapor deposition system, depositing differently natured atoms at substrate surface depends on the input power. In addition to intrinsic nature of atoms, different properties and characteristics of coatings emerge as per engaged forces under their involved energy. The present study sets new trends in the field of coatings involving the diversified class of materials and their counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0039.v4
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: fundamental forces; transition state gold atoms; packing and assembling; process parameters; one-dimensional particles; multi-dimensional particles
Online: 30 July 2018 (08:54:54 CEST)
Developing particles of different anisotropic shapes are the hot topic since decades as they guarantee some special features of properties not possible through other means. Again, controlling atoms to develop certain size and shape particle is a quite challenging job. In this study, gold particles of different shapes are developed via pulse-based electronphoton-solution interface process. Gold atoms of certain transition state develop monolayer assembly at solution surface around the light glow (known in argon plasma) being generated at bottom of copper capillary (known in cathode). The rate of uplifting gold atoms to solution surface is being controlled by forcing energy (travelling photons) pursuing electrons and high energy photons (in high density) entering to solution. Gold atoms dissociated from the precursor under dissipating heat energy into the solution supplied under propagating photons characteristic current through immersed graphite rod (known in anode). Placing packets of nano shape energy of tuned pulse protocol over compact monolayer assembly comprising transition state atoms develop tiny-sized particles of formed shape. On separation of joint tiny particles into two equilateral triangular-shaped tiny particles, exerting forces of surface format elongate atoms of one-dimensional arrays converting them into structures of smooth elements. Due to immersing level of force, such tiny-shaped particles pack from different zones at centre of light glow where they assembled structures of smooth elements for developing mono-layers of different shapes of particles. Developing one-dimensional particles deal assembling of structures of smooth elements of packing tiny-shaped particles from nearly rearward zones of reflection of north-south poles, whereas, developing multi-dimensional particles deal assembling of structures of smooth elements of packing tiny-shaped particles from the east-west poles and near regions. Depending on the number of assembled structures of smooth elements at point of nucleation, packing of tiny-shaped particles from different zones develop different shapes of the anisotropic particles. At fixed precursor concentration, increasing the process time results into develop particles of low aspect ratio. Under tuned parameters, developing mechanisms of particles exhibiting unprecedented features are discussed.