ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:38:15 CEST)
Asians are known to more likely than Westerners develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases despite their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1,142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (−) and fatty liver (FL) (−) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL(−) (n = 32); group C, VFA (−) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had higher number of males; BMI; abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels; and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels; FIB4 index; and number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0417.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: hepatic fibrosis; hepatocullar carcinoma; vibration controlled transient elastography
Online: 19 August 2020 (13:00:28 CEST)
The prevalence of obesity or metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide (“Globally metabodemic”). Approximately 25% of adult general population is suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which has become serious health problem. Hepatic fibrosis is the most significant determinant of all cause and liver -related mortality in NAFLD. Noninvasive test (NIT) should be urgently required to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD. Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index is the 1st triaging tool for excluding advanced fibrosis because of its accuracy, simplicity, and cheapness especially for general physicians or endocrinologists, although FIB-4 index has several drawbacks. Accumulating evidence has suggested that vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE) and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test may become useful as the 2nd step after triaging by FIB-4 index. The leading cause of mortality in NAFLD is cardiovascular disease (CVD), extrahepatic malignancy, and liver-related diseases. NAFLD often complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased simultaneous liver kidney transplantation (SLKT). FIB-4 index could be a predictor of not only liver-related mortality and incident hepatocullar carcinoma (HCC) but also prevalent and incident CKD, CVD, and extrahepatic malignancy. Although NITs as milestones for evaluating treatment efficacy have never been established, FIB- 4 index is expected to reflect histological hepatic fibrosis after treatment in several longitudinal studies. We here review the role of FIB-4 index as 1st step NIT in management of NAFLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4; Fibroblast growth factor; Gastrointestinal peptide; Glucagon-like peptide 1; Glucagon receptor; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; Sodium glucose cotransporter
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:44:49 CET)
Liver related diseases are the 3rd leading causes (9.3%) of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. T2DM is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. There are no established pharmacotherapies for NASH patients with T2DM. Though vitamin E is established as a 1st line agent in NASH without T2DM, its efficacy was recently denied in NASH with T2DM. The effects of pioglitazone on NASH histology with T2DM have extensively been established, but several concerns exist such as body weight gain, fluid retention, cancer incidence, and bone fracture. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are expected to ameliorate NASH (LEAN study, LEAD trial, and E-LIFT study). Among a variety of SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin have already entered phase 3 trials (DEAN study). A key clinical question is what kinds of anti-diabetic drugs are the most appropriate for the treatment of NASH to prevent progression of hepatic fibrosis resulting in HCC/liver-related mortality without increasing risk at cardiovascular or renal events. The combination therapies such as glucagon receptor agonist/GLP-1 or gastrointestinal peptide /GLP-1 will be under development. This review focuses on antidiabetic agents and future perspectives on the view of the treatment of NAFLD with T2DM.