REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides; antisense therapy; DNA insecticides; RNAi; medicine; agriculture; forestry
Online: 25 April 2018 (06:10:24 CEST)
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), short single-stranded polymers (based on DNA or RNA chemistries) synthesized in vitro, regulate gene expression by binding in a sequence-specific manner to a RNA target. The functional activity and selectivity in the action of ASOs largely depends on the combination of nitrogenous bases in a target sequence. This simple and natural property of nucleic acids provides an attractive route by which scientists can create different ASO-based techniques. Over the last 50 years, planned and realized applications in the field of antisense technologies have produced astonishing results and posed new challenges for further developments, exemplifying the essence of the post-genomic era. This mini-review critically analyzes some successful cases using the antisense approach in medicine to address severe diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy, and suggests some prospective directions for future research. We also examine in detail the elaboration of insect-specific DNA insecticides and RNA preparations in the areas of agriculture and forestry, a relatively new branch of ASO that allows circumvention of the use of non-selective chemical insecticides. When considering the variety of successful ASO modifications with an efficient signal-to-noise ratio of action, coupled with the affordability of in vitro oligonucleotide synthesis and post-synthesis procedures, we predict that the next half-century will produce a fruitful yield of tools created from effective ASO-based end products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0594.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: benzoxazines; polybenzoxazines; diaminodiphenylmethane; 3,3’-dichloro-4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane; heterocycles; thermosetting binders
Online: 23 December 2020 (15:30:55 CET)
As a result of this work, a previously unreported benzoxazine monomer based on 3,3'-dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane was obtained, characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and its thermal and rheological properties were studied. A comparison between the properties of benzoxazines based on diamines (3,3'-dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 4,4’-diaminodimethylmethane). The effect of the reaction medium on the structure of the oligomeric fraction and the overall yield of the main product was studied. The synthesized monomers can be used as thermo- and fire-resistant binders for polymer composite materials, as well as hardeners for epoxy resins.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0397.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: phosphazenes; cyclization; controlled cycle size; living cationic polymerization; hexamethyldisilazane
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:02:38 CEST)
Despite a significant number of investigations in the field of phosphazene chemistry, the mechanism of this class cyclic compounds formation is still poorly studied. At the same time, a thorough understanding of this process is necessary both for the direct production of phosphazene rings with a given size, and for the controlled cyclization reaction when it is secondary and undesirable. Here we have synthesized a series of short linear phosphazene oligomers with the general formula Cl[PCl2=N]n–PCl3+PCl6– and studied their tendency to form cyclic structures under the influence of elevated temperature or in the presence of nitrogen-containing agents, such as hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) or ammonium chloride. It was established that linear oligophosphazenes are inert when heated in the absence of the mentioned cyclization agents, and the formation of cyclic products occurs only when these agents are involved in the process. It is for the first time shown the ability to obtain the desired size phosphazene cycle from corresponding linear chain. Known obstacles like side interaction with the PCl6– counterion and a tendency of longer chains to undergo crosslinking elongation instead of cyclization are still relevant and ways to overcome them are being discussed.