REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0139.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: education; cyber threats; gamification; phishing; survey; taxonomies
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:14:56 CET)
Phishing is a set of devastating techniques which lure target users to provide critical resources. They are successful because they rely on human weaknesses. Gamification which is a recent and non-traditional learning method with purpose to motivate and engage user to carry out activities, is more and more applied to prevent such cyber threats. This paper provides the first survey of gamified solutions dedicated to educate against phishing from 2007 to 2019. The investigation is conducted on eight proposals in terms of core concepts, game mechanics and learning process. We provide three taxonomies of dimensions to systematically characterize researches on gamified solutions, discuss lacks of surveyed works and opens further orientations to enhance this research area. Some key results are: solutions do not consider elementary level of knowledge and do no offer basic notions; solutions are not adapted to general audience and therefore not reliably applicable in different contexts; platforms partially educate about phishing; learners are evaluated predictably and within a short period. This study constitutes a cornerstone to understand and enhance research on phishing education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0042.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Reputation; Android; application; sentiment analysis; reviews; security service; NLP; Google Play; polarity
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:49:51 CEST)
To keep its business reliable, Google is concerned to ensure quality of apps on the store. One crucial aspect concerning quality is security. Security is achieved through Google Play protect and anti-malware solutions. However, they are not totally efficient since they rely on application features and application execution threads. Google provides additional elements to enable consumers to collectively evaluate applications providing their experiences via reviews or showing their satisfaction through rating. The latter is more informal and hides details of rating whereas the former is textually expressive but requires further processing to understand opinions behind. Literature lacks approaches which mine reviews through sentiment analysis to extract useful information to improve security aspects of provided applications. This work goes in this direction and in a fine-grained way, investigates in terms of confidentiality, integrity, availability and authentication (CIAA). While assuming that reviews are reliable and not fake, the proposed approach determines review polarities based on CIAA-related keywords. We rely on the popular classifier Naive Bayes to classify reviews into positive, negative and neutral sentiment. We then provide an aggregation model to fusion different polarities to obtain application global and CIAA reputations. Quantitative experiments have been conducted on 13 applications including e-banking, live messaging and anti-malware apps with a total of 1050 security-related reviews and 7.835.322 functionality-related reviews. Results show that 23% of applications (03 apps) have a reputation greater than 0.5 with an accent on integrity, authentication and availability, while the remaining 77% has a polarity under 0.5. Developers should make lot of efforts in security while developing codes and that more efforts should be made to improve confidentiality reputation. Results also show that applications with good functionality-related reputation generally offer bad security-related reputation. This situation means that even if the number of security reviews is low, it does not mean that security aspect is not a consumer preoccupation. Unlike, developers put much more time to test whether applications works without errors even if they include possible security vulnerabilities. A quantitative comparison against well-known rating systems reveals effectiveness and robustness of CIAA-RepDroid to repute apps in terms of security. CIAA-RepDroid can be associated to existing rating solutions to recommend developers exact CIAA aspects to improve within source codes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0332.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: reputation; Android; application; sentiment analysis; comments; security service; NLP; Google Play; polarity
Online: 23 March 2020 (04:22:23 CET)
Comments are exploited by product vendors to measure satisfaction of consumers. With the advent of Natural Language Processing (NLP), comments on Google Play can be processed to extract knowledge on applications such as their reputation. Proposals in that direction are either informal or interested merely on functionality. Unlike, this work aims to determine reputation of Android applications in terms of confidentiality, integrity, availability and authentication (CIAA). This work proposes a model of assessing app reputation relying on sentiment analysis and text analysis of comments. While assuming that comments are reliable, we collect Google Play applications subject to comments which include security keywords. An in-depth analysis of keywords based on Naive Bayes classification is made to provide polarity of any comment. Based on comment polarity, reputation is evaluated for the whole application. Experiments made on real applications including dozens to billions of comments, reveal that developers lack to make efforts to guarantee CIAA services. A fine-grained analysis shows that not security reputed applications can be reputed in specific CIAA services. Results also show that applications with negative security polarities display in general positive functional polarities. This result suggests that security checking should include careful comment analysis to improve security of applications.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Text summarization; Fine-tuning; Transformers; SMS; Gateway; French Wikipedia.
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:48:55 CEST)
Text summarization remains a challenging task in the Natural Language Processing field despite the plethora of applications in enterprises and daily life. One of the common use cases is the summarization of web pages which has the potential to provide an overview of web pages to devices with limited features. In fact, despite the increasing penetration rate of mobile devices in rural areas, the bulk of those devices offer limited features in addition to the fact that these areas are covered with limited connectivity such as the GSM network. Summarizing web pages into SMS becomes, therefore, an important task to provide information to limited devices. This work introduces WATS-SMS, a T5-based French Wikipedia Abstractive Text Summarizer for SMS. It is built through a transfer learning approach. The T5 English pre-trained model is used to generate a French text summarization model by retraining the model on 25,000 Wikipedia pages then compared with different approaches in the literature. The objective is twofold: (1) to check the assumption made in the literature that abstractive models provide better results compared to extractive ones; and (2) to evaluate the performance of our model compared to other existing abstractive models. A score based on ROUGE metrics gave us a value of 52% for articles with length up to 500 characters against 34.2% for transformer-ED and 12.7% for seq-2seq-attention; and a value of 77% for articles with larger size against 37% for transformers-DMCA. Moreover, an architecture including a software SMS-gateway has been developed to allow owners of mobile devices with limited features to send requests and to receive summaries through the GSM network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ANN; COVID-19; CT; mRNA; MRI; RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; XCR
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:02:40 CEST)
Accurate early diagnosis of COVID-19 viral pneumonia, primarily in asymptomatic people is essential to reduce the spread of the disease, the burden on healthcare capacity, and the overall death rate. It is essential to design affordable and accessible solutions to distinguish pneumonia caused by COVID-19 from other types of pneumonia. In this work, we propose a reliable approach based on deep transfer learning that requires few computations and converges faster. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed framework for transfer learning is a potential and effective approach to detect and diagnose types of pneumonia from chest X-ray images with a test accuracy of 94.0%.