ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0377.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Environmentally friendly processes; Bayer residue; waste management; basic catalyst, contaminants, red mud, fatty acid methyl ester
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:00:47 CEST)
Red mud (RM) is composed of a waste alkaline solution (pH = 13.3) obtained from the production of alumina. It contains high concentrations of soluble hematite (Fe2O3), goetite (FeOOH), gibisite [Al(OH)3], a boemite (AlOOH), anatase (Tetragonal - TiO2), rutile (Ditetragonal dipyramidal - TiO2), hydrogarnets [Ca3Al2(SiO4)3−x(OH)4x], and perovskite (CaTiO3). It was shown to be an excellent catalytic mixture for biodiesel production. To demonstrate the value of RM, an environmentally friendly process of transesterification in aqueous medium using waste cooking oil (WCO), MeOH and waste alkaline solution (WAS) obtained from aluminum production was proposed. Triglycerides of WCO reacted with MeOH at 60 oC to yield mixtures of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the presence of 0.019% (w/w) WAS/WCO using the WAS (0.204 mol L-1, predetermined by potentiometric titration) from aluminum production by the Bayer process. The use of the new catalyst (WAS) resulted in a high yield of the products (greater than 99% yield).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0537.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: metals oxides; surface hydrophilicity; alcoholic beverage; contaminants; quality control; mesoporous materials
Online: 31 March 2023 (03:13:00 CEST)
The presence of copper in distilled sugar cane spirits, especially cachaça produced in alembics, has impeded the marketing of this product. Red mud (RM) is a residue obtained from alumina production. It contains a high concentration of metal oxides and is very alkaline. The RM was dried at 100 oC and sifted through a 150-micron sieve. The sample was characterized by B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (A.A.S.). The textural parameters indicate that the total surface area (S.T.) was 21.9 m2g-1, and the total volume pore (V.T.) was 0.09 cm3g-1. The RM (1 g) was stirred for two hours with a 1.0 L cachaça sample containing 9.39 mg of copper L-1 and filtered under atmospheric pressure. The concentration of copper ions detected in the filtrate was 0.00 mg L-1. No copper ions were retained when the cachaça was filtered through the RM under high pressure without stirring prior to filtration.