ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0644.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Glycerol; Acetalization; Solketal; catalysis; MOF-808
Online: 11 October 2023 (05:08:19 CEST)
Glycerol is the main residue in the biodiesel production industry; therefore, their valorisation is crucial. Acetalization of glycerol towards fuel additives as solketal (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-methanol) is of high interest, promoting circular economy since it can be added to the biodiesel or even fossil-diesel to improve their quality and efficiency. Straightforward prepared metal-organic framework (MOF) materials of MOF-808 family were applied to the valorisation of glycerol for the first time. In particular, MOF-808(Hf) revealed to be an effective heterogeneous catalyst to produce solketal under moderate conditions: small amount of the MOF material (only 4wt% of glycerol), ratio 1:6 of glycerol/acetone and temperature of 60 ºC. The high efficiency of MOF-808(Hf) was associated with the high amount of acid centres present in its structure. Furthermore, its structural characteristics such as window opening cavities size and pore diameters showed to be ideal to reuse this material during at least ten consecutive reaction cycles without losing activity (conversion > 90% and selectivity > 98%). Remarkably, it was not necessary the washing or other activation treatment of the MOF-808(Hf) catalyst between cycles (no pore blockage occurred) and it maintained structural integrity after the ten cycles, confirming to be a sustainable heterogeneous catalyst to the glycerol valorisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0562.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous driving; LiDAR; perception systems; evaluation and testing
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:44:38 CET)
The world is facing a great technological transformation towards full autonomous vehicles, where optimists predict that by 2030, autonomous vehicles will be sufﬁciently reliable, affordable and common to displace most human driving. To cope with these trends, reliable perception systems must enable vehicles to hear and see all the surroundings, being light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors a key instrument for recreating a 3D visualization of the world in real time. However, perception systems must rely in accurate measurements of the environment. Thus, sensors must be calibrated and benchmarked before being placed on the market or assembled in a car. This article presents an Evaluation and Testing Platform for Automotive LiDAR sensors with the main goal of testing not only commercially available sensors, but also sensor prototypes currently under development in Bosch Automotive Electronics division. The testing system can benchmark any LiDAR sensor under different conditions, recreating the expected driving environment to which such devices are normally subjected. To characterize and validate the sensor under test, the platform evaluates several parameters such as the ﬁeld of view (FoV), angular resolution, sensor’s range, etc. This project results from a partnership between the University of Minho and Bosch Car Multimedia Portugal, S.A.