ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1636.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Autism spectrum conditions; Atypical resource allocation; Listening effort; Pupillometry; Speech-in-noise recognition
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:10:24 CEST)
Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) often experience difficulties in speech-in-noise (SiN) perception, leading to increased listening effort that impacts their well-being and academic performance. This study aimed to investigate the SiN processing challenges faced by Mandarin-speaking children with ASC and its impact on their listening effort. Methods: Participants completed sentence recognition tests in both quiet and noisy conditions, with a steady-state noise masker presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio in the noisy condition. We compared recognition accuracy and task-evoked pupil responses from 23 Mandarin-speaking children with ASC to 19 age-matched neurotypical (NT) counterparts to gauge their behavioral performance and listening effort during these auditory tasks. Results: The ASC group demonstrated notably decreased accuracy in noise compared to their NT peers, suggesting poorer SiN perception. Pupillometric data further revealed significantly larger peak dilations in the ASC group than in the NT group under comparable conditions. Importantly, the ASC group's peak dilation in quiet mirrored the NT group's in noise. However, the ASC group exhibited shorter peak latencies and reduced mean dilations than the NT group in similar conditions. Such patterns indicate the ASC group might initially experience a heightened cognitive load but utilize fewer cognitive resources as the task continued, indicating an atypical allocation of cognitive resources and a potential tendency towards relatively superficial and automated auditory processing. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the unique SiN processing challenges children with ASC face, underscoring the importance of a nuanced, individual-centric approach for interventions and support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0190.v1
Online: 22 August 2016 (11:35:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the cognitive processes underlying the listening comprehension section of IELTS and to investigate if they vary in terms of difficulty. For this purpose, a checklist of possible cognitive operations was prepared based on the literature and the candidates’ feedback. The checklist consisted of six cognitive operations. A sample of IELTS listening test was given to 310 upper intermediate and advanced students of English. Linear logistic test model was employed to analyse the data. Findings showed that keeping up with the pace of the speaker and understanding reduced forms were the most difficult operations for the listeners. Altogether, the six operations explained 72% of the variance in item difficulty estimates. Implications of the study for the testing and teaching of listening comprehension are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1493.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; brace; exercise; Dichotic Listening Paradigm
Online: 22 September 2023 (10:56:55 CEST)
Background: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients have been found to exhibit cortical asymmetry. This study aimed to examine the impact of conservative treatments on perceptual and cognitive asymmetry in the auditory system of AIS patients with thoracic major curve. Method: The study involved 30 AIS patients and 21 healthy subjects. The intervention group used a Cheneau brace and performed 18 Schroth Best Practice (SBP) exercise sessions. Auditory lateralization was assessed with a Dichotic Listening Paradigm (DLP) in both groups before and after the intervention. Results: The six-week intervention resulted in a significant increase in left ear responses in the force-left condition in the AIS (p<0.05). Left ear responses were lower in AIS at baseline (p<0.05). Sixth-week results were similar in all conditions (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that SBP exercises and Cheneau brace treatment can improve perceptual and cognitive asymmetry in the auditory system in AIS patients with thoracic major curve. Scoliosis-associated changes in the spine and postural control may affect auditory perception by causing adaptations in sensory and motor networks. Future studies are needed to examine the connectivity in brain regions related to motor control and auditory processing after conservative treatment.