REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0293.v1
Subject: Keywords: Biomarkers; Multiple Sclerosis; diagnostic; disease activity; Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG) diseases
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:49:10 CEST)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that involves the intricate interplay of different immune cells going awry leading to inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. Its diagnosis is quite arduous because of the baffling number of symptoms it elicits and the varied clinical manifestation it presents. The simplified criteria (in form of Macdonald’s Criteria) which have got modified several times is now the single most important criteria accepted by neurology bodies for diagnosing MS. Biomarkers from time to time have been explored to simplify the diagnosis and prognosticate MS along with anecessity to monitor treatment outcome. In recent years, research on biomarkers has advanced rapidly due to their ability to be easily and rapidly measured, their specificity, safety, and their ability to yield precise results. Biomarkers are classified into various categories including predictive, diagnostic, prognostic, related to disease activity, and monitoring treatment outcome. Each representative of the disease activity category reflects a variety of pathological processes of MS such as neuroaxonal loss, gliosis, demyelination, disability progression, remyelination, etc. This review discusses several promising serum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and imaging biomarkers used in clinical practice. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease which is recently recognized as a definite disease will also be discussed. Furthermore, it sheds light on the criteria and the challenges a biomarker faces to be considered as a standard one.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0742.v1
Subject: Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Glucose metabolism; Histone deacetylase; HDACs; Histone deacetylase inhibitor; HDACi, Insulin release; Sirtuins, Sirtuin activation
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:23:12 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the principal manifestations of metabolic syndrome and its prevalence with modern lifestyle is increasing incessantly. Chronic hyperglycemia can induce several vascular complications that were referred to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in DM. Although several therapeutic targets have been identified and accessed clinically, the imminent risk of DM and its prevalence are still ascending. Substantial pieces of evidence revealed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoforms can regulate various molecular activities in DM via epigenetic and post-translational regulation of several transcription factors. To date, 18 HDAC isoforms have been identified in mammals that were categorized into 4 different classes. Classes I, II, and IV are regarded as classical HDACs, which operate through a Zn-based mechanism. In contrast, class III HDACs or Sirtuins depend on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) for their molecular activity. Functionally, most of the HDAC isoforms can regulate β cell fate, insulin release, insulin expression and signaling, and glucose metabolism. Moreover, the roles of HDAC members have been implicated in the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and other pathological events, which substantially contribute to diabetes-related vascular dysfunctions. Therefore, HDACs could serve as the potential therapeutic target in DM towards developing novel intervention strategies. This review sheds light on the emerging role of HDACs/isoforms in diabetic pathophysiology and emphasized the scope of their targeting in DM for constituting the novel interventional strategies for metabolic disorders/complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Quantum Dot Nanoparticles; PINK1; Theranostic; mitochondria; drug delivery
Online: 1 November 2022 (14:29:26 CET)
One of the most frequent brain diseases, Alzheimer's is defined by poor cognitive function brought on by the build-up of Beta Amyloid plaques and the gradual death of neurons. Glucose metabolism and the development of amyloid plaques are being studied together. Under physiologically normal circumstances, glucose is the primary substrate for the adult human brain. The prodromal phases of AD are significantly influenced by glucose hypometabolism. Hypometabolism of glucose in the brain is a clear sign of mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic system impairment. By regulating energy synthesis and cell death, mitochondria play a crucial role in the functioning of cells. Increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are a result of mitochondrial dysfunction, which also accelerates the development of Alzheimer's disease. For the maintenance of balance, autophagy is crucial because it selectively destroys damaged mitochondria. AD affects this route for mitochondrial breakdown. Targeting specific mitochondrial ligands by interventions along this pathway might be a useful therapeutic approach. Due to a number of biological obstacles, this method has significant limitations. As a result, many nanocarriers have been created to improve drug delivery effectiveness. All potential nanotechnology-based treatments for AD have been examined in this study, with a particular emphasis on medication delivery to the mitochondria
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cytokines; chemokines; neuroinflammation; neurotrophic factors; pathophysiology; Blood brain barrier; mild cognitive impairment; brain health; therapeutics
Online: 10 August 2021 (15:49:12 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by the gradual decay in neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events primarily including mitochondria dysfunction and cascades of neuro-immune reactions. Besides the acquired harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS), neurotoxins, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and TAU pathologies in neurons, accumulating evidence with time underlined the roles of cytokines and growth factors in the AD pathogenesis. It may help us in evaluating the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline. Proinflammatory cytokines often induce inflammation in AD and AD-like pathogenesis in response to the apoptotic scenarios where some growth factors are involved in cytokinetic reactions to activate microglia and causing inflammation in AD. In this report, we comprehensively reviewed role of cytokines and chemokines in immune response to AD and neuropsychiatry. We provided insights into the neuroinflammation and the role of diverse factors including the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, APP, TAU phosphorylation, glycation end products, complement system, and the role of glial cells. Also, we discussed the pathogenic and protective role of macrophage migration inhibitory factors, choroid plexus-, neurotrophic- and hematopoietic -related growth factors in AD. We further shed light on the availability and accessibility of the cytokines across the blood-brain barrier in AD pathophysiology. Taken together, the emerging role of these factors in AD pathology emphasized the importance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.