REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: procedural sedation; children; dexmedetomidine; imaging
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:44:28 CEST)
There is an increasing need for effective anxiety and pain reduction during medical imaging procedures in children. This is a complex issue, addressed by both non-pharmacological or pharmacological approaches. Dexmedetomidine is a fairly recently marketed, selective α2-adrenergic agonist, and can be administered intranasally. To develop an evidence-guided clinical protocol, we investigated its (side)-effects, preconditions and safety aspects following intranasal dexmedetomidine in children (1 month-5 years) for procedural sedation during medical imaging. To do so, a systematic search (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL (12/2021)) was performed to identify clinical studies on intranasal dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation for medical imaging (Computer Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Following screening and quality assessment, 8 studies were retained. Nasal nebulization was considered the best administration method, dosing varied between 2 to 4 µg/kg (age-dependent) 30-45 minutes prior to imaging, and contra-indications or restrictions on oral intake were somewhat consistent across studies. Valid sedation scores were routinely used to assess sedation and the need for rescue dosing, while discharge was generally based on the Aldrete score (score ≥9). Heart rate, blood pressure and saturation were routinely monitored, with commonly observed bradycardia or hypotension (decrease by 20%). Based on these findings, a roadmap for evidence-guided clinical protocol was generated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: children; adolescents; burns; dressing changes; virtual reality; pain.
Online: 2 October 2020 (15:29:05 CEST)
Children and adolescents with severe burns require dressing changes, associated with pain. As immersive virtual reality (VR) gained prominence as non-pharmacological adjuvant analgesia, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of full immersive VR on pain experienced during dressing changes in hospitalized children and adolescents with severe burns. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. The systematic reviewsearch resulted in eight studies and 142 patients. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. Due to missing data, four studies were excluded from the meta-analysis. Fixed effects meta-analysis of the four included studies (n = 104) revealed a large effect size (ES) (SMD=0.94; 95% CI=0.62, 1.27; Z=5.70; p<0.00001) for adjuvant full immersive VR compared to standard care. In conclusion, adjuvant full immersive VR significantly reduces pain experienced during dressing changes in children and adolescents with burns. We therefore recommend implementing full immersive VR as an adjuvant in this specific setting and population. However, this requires further research into the hygienic use of VR appliances in health institutions. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the hardware, a cost-benefit analysis is required. Finally, research should also verify the long term physical and psychological benefits of VR.