REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1866.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: breast reconstruction; reconstruction following mastectomy; prophylactic mastectomy; chest feminization; transgender; implant reconstruction of breast; immediate reconstruction; delayed reconstruction; two-stage breast reconstruction; autologous breast reconstruction
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:19:28 CEST)
(1) Importance of problem: Breast cancer accounted for 685.000 deaths globally in 2020, and half of all cases occur in women with no specific risk factor beside gender and age-group. During last 4 decades we see a reduction by 40% of age-standardized breast cancer , which in turn means that the number of mastectomies performed for younger women increased, raising the need for adequate breast reconstructive surgery. Advances in oncological treatment have made it possible to limit the extent of what represents radical surgery for breast cancer, yet in the past decade, we see a marked trend toward mastectomy in breast conserving surgery eligible patients . Prophylactic mastectomy has also registered an upward trend [3,4]. This trend together with new indication for breast reconstruction like chest feminization in transgender patients  have increased the need for breast reconstruction surgery. (2) Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the types of reconstructive procedures, their indications, their limitations, their functional results and the safety profiles when used during the integrated treatment plan of the oncologic patient; (3) Methods: We conducted an extensive literature review of the main reconstructive techniques, especially the autologous procedures, summarized the findings and presented a few cases from our own experience for exemplification of the usage of breast reconstruction in oncologic patients. (4) Conclusions: Breast reconstruction has become a necessary step in the treatment of most breast cancers and many reconstructive techniques are now routinely practiced. Microsurgical techniques are considered the "gold standard", but they are not accessible to all services, from a technical or financial point of view, so pediculated flaps remain the safe and reliable option, along with alloplastic procedures, to improve the quality of life of these patients.