REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2108.v1
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:18:08 CEST)
Optical immunosensors are one of the most popular category of immunosensors with applications in many fields including diagnostics, environmental and food analysis. The latter field is of particular interest not only for the scientists but also for the regulatory authorities and the public since food is essential for life but can be also the source of many health problems. In this context, the current review aims to provide an overview of the different types of optical immunosensors focusing onto their application for the determination of pathogenic bacteria in food samples. In particular, after the description of main optical transduction techniques, their implementation for the immunochemical determination of bacteria will be discussed. Finally, a short commentary about the future trends in optical immunosensors for food safety applications will be provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0162.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Immunosensor; SARS-CoV-2; N-protein
Online: 12 October 2022 (03:28:14 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance and urgent need of rapid and accurate diagnostic tests for detection and screening of this infection. In our proposal, a biosensor based on the ELISA immunoassay was developed for monitoring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in human serum samples. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) was selected as a specific receptor for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G. Thus, the N-protein was immobilized on surface of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with carboxylated graphene (CG). The IgG-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid concentration was quantified using a secondary antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (anti-IgG-HRP) catalyzed by 3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) mediator by chronoamperometry. A linear response was obtained in the range of 1:1000-1:200 v/v in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and the limit of detection calculated was of 1:4947 v/v. The chronoamperometric method showed electrical signals directly proportional to antibody concentrations due to Ag-Ab specific and stable binding reaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: EGFET; ISFET; electrochemical cell; enzymatic biosensor; DNA–DNA biosensor; immunosensor; antigen–antibody biosensor; ionic sensor
Online: 12 October 2018 (04:38:42 CEST)
Since 1970s, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of semiconductor–based biosensors because of the numerous advantages they offer, including high sensitivity, faster response time, miniaturization, and low–cost manufacturing for quick biospecific analysis with reusable features. Commercial biosensors have become highly desirable in the fields of medicine, food, environmental monitoring as well as military applications (e.g., Hoffmann–La Roche, Abbott Point of Care, Orion High technologies, etc.), whereas increasing concerns on the food safety and health issues have resulted in the introduction of novel legislative standards for these sensors. Numerous devices have been developed for monitoring of biological–processes such as nucleic–acid hybridization, protein–protein interaction, antigen–antibody bonds and substrate–enzyme reactions, just to name a few. Since 1980s scientific interest moved to the development of semiconductor–based devices which also include integrated front–end electronics, such as the extended–gate–field–effect–transistor biosensor which is one of the first miniaturized chemical sensors. This work is intended to be a review of the state of the art focused on the development of biosensors based extended–gate–field–effect–transistor within the field of bioanalytical applications, which will highlight the most recent research works reported in the literature. Moreover, a comparison among the diverse EGFET devices will be presented giving particular attention to the materials and technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: antibody coating; proximity-enhanced reaction; immunoglobulins; IgG; protein A; protein G; bio-interaction; immunoprecipitation; pull-down assay; immunocapture; stabilization; yield; regeneration; nanoparticles; microparticles; biochips; immunosensor; photochemical crosslinker; click chemistry; herceptin; trastuzumab
Online: 18 April 2019 (07:55:11 CEST)
Crosslinking of proteins for their irreversible immobilization on surfaces is a proven and popular method. However, many protocols lead to random orientation and the formation of undefined or even inactive by-products. Most concepts to obtain a more targeted conjugation or immobilization requires the recombinant modification of at least one binding partner, which is often impractical or prohibitively expensive. Here a novel method is presented, which is based on the chemical preactivation of Protein A or G with selected conventional crosslinkers. In a second step, the antibody is added, which is subsequently crosslinked in the Fc part. This leads to an oriented and covalent immobilization of the immunoglobulin with a very high yield. Protocols for Protein A and Protein G with murine and human IgG are presented. This method may be useful for the preparation of columns for affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, antibodies conjugated to magnetic particles, permanent and oriented immobilization of antibodies in biosensor systems, microarrays, microtitration plates or any other system, where the loss of antibodies needs to be avoided, and maximum binding capacity is desired. This method is directly applicable even to antibodies in crude cell culture supernatants, raw sera or protein-stabilized antibody preparations without any purification nor enrichment of the IgG. This new method delivered much higher signals as a traditional method and, hence, seems to be preferable in many applications.