ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0097.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: conservation practice, ecosystem, impact, IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, monitoring, risk assessment
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:50:24 CET)
In 2014, the International Union for Conservation of Nature adopted the Red List of Ecosystems (IUCN RLE) criteria as the global standard for assessing risks to terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. Identifying and quantifying the impacts of biodiversity assessments on the status of nature is key to justifying continued investment in assessments and enabling strategic planning to maximize future impact. In this policy perspective, we use an established impact evaluation framework to identify the impacts of the IUCN RLE since its inception. To date, 1,397 ecosystem units in 100 countries have been assessed following the IUCN RLE protocol. Systematic assessments are complete or underway in more than 25 countries and two continental regions (the Americas and Europe). Countries with established ecosystem red lists have already used them to inform legislation, land-use planning, protected area expansion, monitoring and reporting, and ecosystem management. IUCN RLE indices based on systematic assessments have high potential to inform global biodiversity reporting for the Aichi Targets and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Expanding the coverage of IUCN RLE assessments, building capacity to undertake them, and establishing stronger policy instruments to manage red-listed ecosystems will be key to maximizing conservation impacts over the coming decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Dryophytes immaculatus; Dryophytes suweonensis; Dryophytes flaviventris; Yellow sea; North East Asia; threat; amphibian; recommendation IUCN Red List
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:17:27 CEST)
Threat assessment is important to prioritize species conservation projects and planning. The taxonomic resolution regarding the status of the “Dryophytes immaculatus group” and the description of a new species in the Republic of Korea resulted in a shift in ranges and population sizes. Thus, reviewing the IUCN Red List status of the three species from the group: D. immaculatus, D. suweonensis and D. flaviventris and recommending an update is needed. While the three species have similar ecological requirements and are distributed around the Yellow sea, they are under contrasting anthropological pressure and threats. Here, based on the literature available, I have applied all IUCN Red List criteria and tested the fit of each species in each criteria to recommend listing under the adequate threat level. This resulted in the recommendation of the following categories: Near Threatened for D. immaculatus, Endangered following the criteria C2a(i)b for D. suweonensis and Critically Endangered following the criteria E for D. flaviventris. All three species are declining, mostly because of landscape changes as a result of human activities, but the differences in range, population dynamics and already extirpated sub-populations result in different threat levels for each species. Dryophytes flaviventris is under the highest threat category mostly because of its limited range, segregated into two sub-populations and several known historical sub-populations are now extirpated. Immediate actions for the conservation of this species are required. Dryophytes suweonensis is present in both the Republic of Korea and the Democratic Republic of Korea and is under lower ecological pressure in DPR Korea. Dryophytes immaculatus is present in the People’s Republic of China, on a very large range despite a marked decline. I recommend joint efforts for the conservation of these species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0659.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Beel, conservation, fish diversity, IUCN, native fishes
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:06:18 CEST)
This study was conducted in the Dhanu River and adjacent waters at Mithamain upazila (sub-district) under Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh to prepare a check list of available native fishes with their availability status, conservation perspectives, habitat preferences, population trends and intimidations. Data were collected monthly by direct field survey, focus group discussions, and personal interviews with fishers by using a semi-structured questionnaire and a pictorial check list of fish species. A total of 91 indigenous fish species of 59 genera belonging to 29 families under 11 orders were documented where 17.58% species was abundantly available, 27.47% was commonly available, 31.87% was moderately available and 23.08% was rarely available. Cypriniformes was found as the dominant order, consisting 37.36% of the fish species aggregation and Cyprinidae was the most dominant family with 32.97% of the entire species assemblage. Twenty four piscine species (26.37%) were under threatened category in Bangladesh which subsumed 3 critically endangered (3.29%), 11 endangered (12.08%), and 10 vulnerable species (10.99%). Notably globally threatened Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Channa orientalis, and Wallago attu were available there. Fish population trends of 24.18% and 59.34% of the entire fish species was found in decreasing trends in global and national level, respectively. Leading intimidation to the fish diversity was indiscriminately overfishing, followed by fishing by dewatering of wetlands, katha fishing method, use of deprecated fishing gears, climate change, etc. Minimization of anthropogenic impacts, assuring the flux of water round the year, enactments of fish laws, installation and management of fish sanctuaries, and raising public awareness can be effective for the conservation of existing fisheries resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wildlife trade; Madagascar; Amphibians; CITES; IUCN Redlist; conservation.
Online: 21 June 2023 (15:12:53 CEST)
Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot with a long history of trading in its wildlife, especially its hyper diverse Amphibian taxa. Due to globally raised concerns over the conservation for harvested amphibian species on Madagascar, CITES was introduced as a global mechanism to monitor and regulate the trade. Utilising data collated from the CITES Trade database, this study sought to investigate the trade and CITES effectiveness in managing the trade. Over the 28 year period investigated, 20 known amphibian species were exported from Madagascar with a total of nearly 271,000 individuals. Formal descriptions of Malagasy amphibian species has and continues to increase greatly over time, there has not been a concomitant, longitudinal relationship in the numbers of individuals traded. Overall, the numbers of individuals traded has declined over time but, where assessments were provided by the IUCN Redlist, population declines were reported in all but one species of Malagasy amphibian. Mantella (97.5%) continue to dominate the trade with certain, high conservation concern species continuing in the trade. Despite early concerns over the effectiveness of CITES actions, after concerted efforts it appears that CITES actions were having an impact in regulating the trade. However, going forward, concerns remain over the appropriateness of the quotas set and the robustness of their underpinning NDFs. Furthermore, with the increase in recognised species raises the potential for incorrect species labelling on CITES permits that needs attention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Seagrass; Ocean Turf grass; climax communities; Indian Ocean region; IUCN; Population traits; conservation; management
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:33:17 CEST)
We reviewed the current status of a Vulnerable seagrass, Halophila beccarii from the coast of India using the published data from 1977-2020. We found that the seagrass, H. beccarii has a pan India distribution on both east and west coast. It is abundant in the intertidal silty-muddy region on the west coast, while on the east coast it is found on sandy habitats, with few exceptions of muddy habitat. H. beccarii was found to be associated with mangroves or smaller seagrass species within a depth limit of 1.7m. Low salinity and high nitrate levels were observed for the H. beccarii meadows of the west coast due to its association with mangroves. The nutrient levels in H. beccarii meadows of India were comparatively lower than other seagrass meadows. Most of the research on H. beccarii has focoused on its morphometrics (41%), reproductive (33%) and distribution (29%) along the coast of India. Reproductive traits such as flowering and fruiting varying according to the seasons of each coast due to the influence of monsoon and its associated temperature, salinity and nutrient influx. H. beccarii has a great potential of various bioactive compounds, which needs further investigation. Habitat disturbance, anthropogenic pollution and coastal development are the major cause of declining H. beccarii ecosystems in India. Significant loss of the seagrass was observed from the west coast of India due to increased coastal development activities. There is a significant need in quantifying H. beccarii population trends, impact of climate and anthropogenic stressors, economic values of ecosystem services and the role of ecological connectivity for better conservation and management of H. beccarii seascapes across India. There is a need for integration of research outcomes in policy framing for preventing the decline and further loss of this vulnerable seagrass ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: aquarists; aquarium trade; captive-breeding; IUCN red list; ornamental fish; threatened fish; undescribed species
Online: 2 July 2019 (04:18:04 CEST)
Freshwater fish represent half of all fish species and are the most threatened vertebrate group. Given their considerable passion and knowledge, aquarium hobbyists can play a vital role in their conservation. CARES is made up of many hobbyist organizations, whose purpose is to encourage aquarium hobbyists to the most endangered or extinct-in-the-wild freshwater fish to help ensure their survival. We found the CARES priority list contains nearly six hundred species from twenty families and two dozen species extinct-in-the-wild. The major families were typically the ones with largest hobbyist affiliations such as killifish, livebearers, and cichlids; which alone were half of CARES species. CARES contained every IUCN threatened species of Pseudomugilidae and Valenciidae, but only one percent of threatened Characidae, Cobitidae, and Gobiidae species. No Loricariidae in CARES were in the IUCN red list as they were not scientifically described. Tanzania and Mexico contained the largest amount of species, with the latter containing the most endemics. A large percent of species were classified differently than the IUCN, including a third of extinct-in-the-wild species classified as least concern by the IUCN. The vast disconnect exemplifies the importance of collaboration and information exchange required between hobbyists, the scientific community, and conservation organizations.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Post-2020; Global Biodiversity Framework; Zero draft; Aichi Targets; Convention on Biological Diversity; biodiversity; extinction; conservation; IUCN Red List
Online: 5 September 2020 (06:27:39 CEST)
In 2010, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 to address the loss and degradation of nature. Subsequently, most biodiversity indicators continued to decline. Nevertheless, conservation actions can make a positive difference for biodiversity. The emerging Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework has potential to catalyze efforts to ‘bend the curve’ of biodiversity loss. Thus, the inclusion of a goal on species, articulated as Goal B in the Zero Draft of the Post-2020 Framework, is essential. However, as currently formulated, this goal is inadequate for preventing extinctions, and reversing population declines; both of which are required to achieve the CBD’s 2030 mission. We contend it is unacceptable that Goal B could be met while most threatened species deteriorated in status and many avoidable species extinctions occurred. We examine the limitations of the current wording and propose an articulation with robust scientific basis. A goal for species that strives to end extinctions and recover populations of all species that have experienced population declines, and especially those at risk of extinction, would help to align actors towards the transformative actions and interventions needed for humans to live in harmony with nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Mediterranean flora; endemic plants; IUCN assessments; island biogeography; plant conservation; Tyrrhenian islands; biological forms; plant evolution and distribution; plant diversity
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:06:51 CET)
The vascular flora of Sardinia has been investigated for more than 250 years, with particular attention to the endemic component, due to their phylogeographic and conservation interest. However, continuous changes in the floristic composition through natural processes, anthropogenic drivers or modified taxonomical attributions require constant updating. We checked all available literature, web sources, field and unpublished data from authors and acknowledged external experts to compile an updated checklist of vascular plants endemic to Sardinia. Life and chorological forms, and the conservation status of the updated taxa list were reported. Sardinia hosts 340 taxa (15% of the total native flora) endemic to the Tyrrhenian islands and other limited continental territories; 195 of these are exclusive to Sardinia. Asteraceae (50 taxa) and Plumbaginaceae (42 taxa) are the most representative families, while the most frequent life forms are hemicryptophytes (118 taxa) and chamaephytes (105 taxa). The global conservation status, available for 200 taxa, indicates that most endemics are under the ‘Critically Endangered’ (25 taxa), ‘Endangered’ (31 taxa) or ‘Least Concern’ (90 taxa) IUCN categories. This research provides an updated basis for future biosystematics, taxonomic, biogeographical and ecological studies, and for supporting more integrated and efficient policy tools.