ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cell transmission model; dynamic traffic assignment; exclusive bus lanes; intermittent bus lanes; network design
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:53:04 CET)
The urban transportation network design problem involving exclusive bus lanes (XBLs) has been widely discussed and analyzed in recent years. An improved and more flexible transit lane management strategy—intermittent bus lanes (IBLs)—prove to be potentially more efficient and car-friendly than XBLs. The common benefit of XBLs and IBLs arises from the fact that they separate the bus and car traffic and hence can eliminate the impacts of slowly moving buses on the car traffic. This paper proposes a cell transmission model for separate car and bus traffic (CTM-SCB) in a network with some dedicated roadway segments reserved for buses. By encapsulating the CTM-SCB model, an XBL-based network design problem and an IBL-based network design problem are then formulated and solved, respectively, where the former model statically sets bus lanes while the later one allows a dynamic allocation of bus lanes. A synthetic freeway-arterial network and a real-world urban street network (where the latter was extracted from the Harbin South New Industrial City) are used as test networks for evaluating the proposed models and methods. The numerical results show that both XBLs and IBLs enjoy significant operational efficiency benefits compared to the situation of no protected bus lanes. However, we believe that the expected improvement from XBLs to IBLs need further tests and validations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cavitation jet; Finite volume method; Structural parameters; Numerical Simulation
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:12:20 CET)
In order to reveal the mechanism and influencing factors of high pressure jet cavitation of nozzle in submerged environment, this study focused on the evolutionary process of cavitation bubbles and combined finite volume method and mixed multi-phase flow model to analyze the cavitation, velocity distribution and experimental cavitation intensity of fishing net cleaning equipment. Results show that the cavitation inception, growth and collapse mainly occurred in the peripheral region of the flow field. Ring-shaped cavitation erosion zone appeared on the test sample target. A lot of small dense erosion pits were densely distributed in the ring-shaped erosion zone, erosion marks were observed in the center. The cavitation erosion intensity was greatly affected by the nozzle structure. As the diameter of nozzle increased from 0.6 mm to 1 mm, the maximum gas volume fraction increased by 8.53%. The nozzle outlet enlargement angle greatly increased the cavitation intensity. The nozzle with an outlet angle of 30° exhibited the optimal cavitation erosion performance . The cavitation volume fraction of the nozzle with short necking structure was slightly larger than that of the nozzle with long necking structure at the same level in the necking length rang of 3mm to 7mm. In terms of the influence of nozzle structure on the cavitation erosion effect, the nozzle diameter D ranked the first, followed by the outlet angle α, and the necking length L was at the last.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: debris flow simulation; remote sensing; tree ring; Massflow; northeastern Tibet
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:29:40 CEST)
Rare study on quantitative relationship between energetic impact of debris flows on the intensity and duration of growth disturbances of tree rings was carried out, partly due to lack of feasible approaches and detailed field evidence. In this study, we firstly determine the age of a recent debris flow derived from historic landslide deposits at Qingyang mountain (QYM) on the northeastern Tibet plateau by dendrogeomorphic technique. We acquired the quantitative data of annual widths of tree rings in history and confirmed the influence of debris flow rather than other factors (e.g. climatic event and inset outbreaking) in disturbing the growth of tree rings in a specific year. Using the approach, we determined the age of the debris flow at QYM occurred in 1982, which was speculated to be triggered by high monthly precipitation of July in 1982. Subsequently, based on the boundaries of historic debris flow identified on remote sensing images before and after 1982 and depth-integrated continuum model, we reconstructed the process of 1982-debris flow and obtained the kinematic energy of debris flow impacting on the sampled trees. Based on the study, we observed that two growth disturbance patterns of tree rings influenced by the reconstructed 1982-debris flow were revealed including growth suppression and asymmetric growth. A raw logarithm relationship between duration (i.e. lasting time for the disturbed tree rings to recover the initial width) and intensity of growth disturbances (i.e. growth suppression ratio of disturbed tree rings) was obtained. We concluded that there is a negative exponential relationship between simulated kinematic energy of debris flow impacting on the disturbed trees and time to recover the initial width of corresponding tree rings.