REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: M.tb pathogenesis; MDR-TB; XDR-TB; drug tolerance; new approaches
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:20:12 CEST)
Antibiotics have played a crucial role in the reduction of TB incidence globally as evidenced by the fact that before the mid-20th century, the mortality rate within five years of the onset of the disease was 50%. The use of antibiotics has eliminated TB as a devastating disease, but the challenge of resistance to anti-TB drugs, which had already been described at the time of the introduction of streptomycin, has become a major global issue in disease management. Mismanagement of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, resulting from intermittent drug use, prescription errors and non-compliance of patients, has been identified as a critical risk factor for the development of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in TB is a multi-factorial, complex problem of microbes evolving to escape antibiotics, the gradual decline of antibiotic development, and different economic and social conditions. In this review, we summarise recent advances in our understanding of how Mycobacterium tuberculosis evolves drug resistance. We also highlight the importance of developing shorter regimens that rapidly reach bacteria in diverse host environments, eradicating all mycobacterial populations and preventing the evolution of drug resistance. Lastly, we also emphasise that the current burden of this ancient disease is driven by a combination of complex interactions between mycobacterial and host factors, and that only a holistic approach that effectively addresses all the critical issues associated with drug resistance will limit the further spread of drug-resistant strains throught the community.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0676.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CRE; CRAB; CRPA; multidrug resistance; alternative strategies
Online: 11 July 2023 (07:12:08 CEST)
The global burden of bacterial resistance remains one of the most serious public health concerns. Infections caused by multiresistant (MDR) bacteria in critically ill patients require immediate empirical treatment, which may not only be ineffective due to the resistance of MDR bacteria to multiple classes of antibiotics, but may also contribute to the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Both the WHO and the ECDC consider carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) to be the highest priority. The ability to form biofilm and the acquisition of multiple drug resistance, in particular to carbapenems, have made these pathogens particularly difficult to treat. They are a growing cause of healthcare-associated infections and a significant threat to public health, associated with a high mortality rate. Moreover, co-colonization with these pathogens in critically ill patients was found to be a significant predictor for in-hospital mortality. Importantly, they have the potential to spread resistance using mobile genetic elements. Given the current situation, it is clear that finding new ways to combat antimicrobial resistance can no longer be delayed. The aim of this review was to evaluate the literature on how these pathogens contribute to the global burden of AMR. The review also highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics and the need to implement antimicrobial stewardship principles to prevent the transmission of drug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings. Finally, the review discusses the advantages and limitations of alternative therapies for the treatment of infections caused by these "titans" of antibiotic resistance.