Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: fibrogenesis; hepatic stellate cells; coculture; transforming growth factor beta; oxygen tension
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:51:19 CET)
During chronic liver injury, inflammation leads to liver fibrosis— particularly due to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). However, the involvement of inflammatory cytokines in HSC activation and the relationship among different liver cells is unclear. To examine their interactions, many in vitro liver models are performed in organoid or spheroid culture with random 3D structure, complicating analysis. Herein, we demonstrated the hierarchical coculture of primary rat hepatocytes with non-parenchymal cells such as the human-derived HSC line (LX-2) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell line (TMNK-1). The cocultured tissue had high usability with simple operation of separating solid and liquid phases with improved liver functions such as albumin production and hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 activity. We also studied the effects of stimulation by both oxygen tension and the key pro-fibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), on HSC activation. Gene expression analysis revealed that lower oxygen tension and TGF-β1 stimulation enhanced collagen type I and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression from LX-2 cells in the hierarchical coculture. Therefore, this hierarchical in vitro cocultured liver tissue could provide an improved platform as a disease model for elucidating the interactions of various liver cell types and biochemical signals in future liver fibrogenesis studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: hPSCs derived-organoids; Culture strategy; Disease modeling; Drug screening; Regenerative therapy
Online: 24 June 2022 (08:11:15 CEST)
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have become a powerful tool to generate various kinds of cell types comprising the human body. Recently, organoid technology emerged as a platform to build a physiologically relevant tissue-like structure from the PSCs, which provides a more relevant three-dimensional microenvironment to the actual human body than the conventional monolayer culture system for transplantation, disease modeling, and drug development. Although it holds so many advantages, the organoid culture system still has various problems related to culture methods, which became a challenge to get similar physiological properties to their original tissue counterparts. Here, we discuss the current development of organoid culture methods, including the problem that may arise from the currently available culture systems as well as the possible approach to overcoming the current limitation and improving their optimum utilization for translational application purposes.