ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0383.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioretention; nitrogen removal; submerged zone; alternate wet and dry conditions
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:31:15 CET)
Adding a submerged zone (SZ) is deemed to promote denitrification during dry periods and thus improve NO3--N removal efficiency of a bioretention system. However, few studies had investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration in the SZ during dry periods and evaluated the effect of the variation on nitrogen removal of the bioretention system. Based on the experiment in a mesocosm bioretetion system with SZ, this study investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration of the system under 17 consecutive cycles of wet and dry alternation with varied rainfall amount, influent nitrogen concentration and antecedent dry periods (ADP). The results indicated that (1) during the dry periods, NH4+-N concentrations in SZ showed an exponential decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 12.9 ± 7.3 hours; while NO3--N concentrations showed an inverse S-shape decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 18.8 ± 6.4 hours; (2) during the wet periods, NO3--N concentration in the effluent showed an S-shape upward trend; and at the early stage of the wet periods, the concentration was relatively low and significantly correlated with ADP, while the corresponding volume of the effluent was significantly correlated with the SZ depth; (3) in the whole experiment, the contribution of nitrogen decrease in SZ during dry periods to NH4+-N and NO3--N removal accounted for 12% and 92%, respectively; and the decrease of NO3--N in SZ during the dry period was correlated with the influent concentration in the wet period and the length of the dry period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0123.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: HCT-116, WS1, water dispersive QDs, aqueous synthesis, cytotoxicity of QDs.
Online: 6 August 2018 (13:56:16 CEST)
Semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs), have unique optical and physical properties that make them potential imaging tools in biological and medical applications. However, concerns such as the aqueous dispersivity, toxicity to cells and stability in biological environments may limit the use of QDs in bioapplications. Here, we report an investigation into the cytotoxicity of aqueously dispersed CdSe(S) and CdSe(S)/ZnO core/shell QDs in the presence of human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and a human skin fibroblast cell line (WS-1). The cytotoxicity of the precursor solutions used in the synthesis of the CdSe(S) QDs was also determined in the presence of HCT-116 cells and compared to that of the heat-shock protein (Hsp90) inhibitor, 17-AAG. CdSe(S) QDs were found to have a low toxicity at concentrations up to 100 µg/ml, with a decreased cell viability at higher concentrations, indicating a highly dose-dependent response. Meanwhile, CdSe(S)/ZnO core/shell QDs exhibited lower toxicity than uncoated QDs at higher concentrations. Confocal microscopy images of HCT-116 cells after incubation with CdSe(S) and CdSe(S)/ZnO QDs showed that the cells were stable in aqueous concentrations of 100 µg of QDs per ml, with no sign of cell necrosis, confirming the cytotoxicity data. Key words: HCT-116, WS1, water dispersive QDs, aqueous synthesis, cytotoxicity of QDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0418.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Direct electric curing; Steam curing; Mechanical properties; Microstructure; Joule heat; Energy consumption
Online: 27 October 2021 (14:25:44 CEST)
Direct electric curing (EC) is a new green curing method for cement-based materials that improves the early mechanical properties via the uniform high temperature produced by Joule heating. To understand the effects of EC and steam curing (SC) on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cement-based materials, the mortar was cured at different temperature-controlled curing regimes (40°C, 60°C and 80°C). Meanwhile, mechanical properties, hydrate phase and pore structure of specimens were investigated. The energy consumption of two curing methods was compared and analyzed. The results show that the EC specimens have better and more stable growth of mechanical strength. The pore structure of EC specimen is also better than that of SC specimen at different maintenance ages. However, the hydration degree and products of samples cured by EC are similar to that SC samples. The energy consumption of EC is lower than SC. This study provides an important technical support for the EC in the production of energy-saving and high early-strength concrete precast components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0599.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: upconversion nanoparticles; near-infrared-II; excitation mechanisms; luminescence quenching; microscopic imaging
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:18:36 CET)
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising bioimaging nanoprobes due to their excellent photostability. As one of the most commonly-used lanthanide activators, Tm3+ ions have perfect ladder-type electron configuration and can be directly excited by bio-friendly near-infrared-II (NIR-II) wavelengths. Here, the emission characteristics of Tm3+-doped nanoparticles under laser excitations of different near-infrared-II wavelengths were systematically investigated. The 1064 nm, 1150 nm and 1208 nm lasers are proposed to be three excitation strategies with different response spectra of Tm3+ ions. Particularly we found that 1150 nm laser excitation enables intense three-photon 475 nm emission, which is nearly 100 times stronger than that excited by 1064 nm excitation. We further optimized the luminescence brightness after investigating the luminescence quenching mechanism of bare NaYF4:Tm (1.75%) core. After growing inert shell, ten-fold increase of emission intensity was achieved. Combining the advantages of NIR-II wavelength and the higher-order nonlinear excitation, a promising facile excitation strategy was developed for the application of thulium-doped upconversion nanoparticles in single nanoparticle imaging and cancer cell microscopic imaging.