ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Opiates, Opium smoking, Neck pain, Neck disability, Forward head posture, Hyperkyphosis, Drug use disorder, Iran
Online: 18 July 2023 (15:56:47 CEST)
Opium smoking for long hours and over many years is common in Iran, and the Covid-19 pan-demic and false beliefs about the protective effects of that opium against COVID-19 infection has caused the increasing of opium smoking during the pandemic. The aim of this study was to in-vestigate the relationship between non-ergonomic positions of traditional opium smoking in Iran with the occurrence of neck pain and disability, forward head posture and hyperkyphosis. In this cross-sectional and correlation study 120 people who smoke opium were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were interviewed about their addiction profile and evaluated for the pres-ence of pain and disability in the neck by Maudsley Addiction Profile, Leeds Dependence Ques-tionnaire, the Visual Analog Scale and Neck Disability Index. Also, they were evaluated about forward head posture (FHP) through side view photography and hyperkyphosis (HK) through flexible ruler. Data were analyzed by correlation coefficient tests and stepwise linear regression. There was a significant relation between homelessness, the duration of lifetime opium smoking (months), the duration of daily opium smoking (minutes) and drug dependence severity with the severity of neck pain, neck disability, forward head posture and hyperkyphosis. Homelessness is the strongest predictive variable of the possibility of neck pain and disability, FHP and HK, fol-lowed by ‘‘the number of months of opium smoking’’ and ‘‘the number of minutes of opium smoking in one day’’ respectively. Increasing the duration of sitting in non-ergonomic positions can lead to neck pain and disability, FHP and HK due to their non-neutral posture in opium smokers.