ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: high school baseball; health; heatwave; heatstroke; sustainability; environment; gender difference; Japan
Online: 14 December 2021 (18:35:09 CET)
A summer high school baseball tournament is held every mid-summer in Koshien Stadium. “Koshien Baseball” is very popular in Japan; however, it faces the problem of extremely high temperatures during games. Thus, high school players are threatened by the harsh environment. For this reason, Internet surveys were conducted twice to purposefully engage the same individuals. Then, information on their views regarding the Koshien tournament before and after the provision of information regarding environmental change in Japan was gathered. Using data, this study examined how their views changed after having the information. Compared with the view before, it was found that (1) respondents were more likely to agree that the management rule of the Koshien tournaments should be altered to protect player’s health, and (2) the impact of providing information is larger for female respondents, young people, and highly educated respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Tokyo Olympics 2020; Happiness; Subjective well-being; OMOTENASHI; JAPAN
Online: 15 August 2020 (03:55:01 CEST)
The 2020 Tokyo Olympics has been postponed due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The implications for industries related to the Olympics—tourism, hotels and restaurants, and others—are expected to be affected by reduced demand. Japanese workers in these industries were prepared to offer their hospitality to visitors from around the world. They would be satisfied from not only an increase in income but also in offering visitors a taste of Tokyo’s great hospitality if the Olympics had been held in 2020. However, postponement of the sporting event is likely to have a significant impact on their happiness level. We independently collected individual-level panel data from March to April 2020. Based on this, we found that the happiness level of workers in the tourism and restaurant sectors declined drastically after the announcement of the postponement. Only two weeks later, their happiness level did not alter from the pre-announcement level. This tendency was strongly observed in Tokyo and the surrounding prefectures, but not in other prefectures. However, workers engaged in the tourism and restaurant sectors did not predict a decrease in their income even after the postponement. Combined, these findings indicate that loss of extending hospitality, rather than reduction in income, temporarily reduces the happiness level of workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0549.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: childhood education; Hygiene; COVID-19; preventive behaviours; staying at home; mask wearing; hand washing; public goods
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:21:57 CET)
Childhood hygiene education has resulted in individuals engaging in hand washing and mask wearing to cope with COVID-19. Individuals can form sustainable development-related habits through childhood education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0474.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Vaccine; COVID-19; Preventive behaviors; Norm; Japan; Panel data
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:28:45 CET)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine is key to reducing the probability of contracting COVID-19. The vaccine is generally known to prevent severe illness, death, and hospitalization as a result of the disease and for considerably reducing COVID-19 infection risk. Accordingly, this might significantly change an individual’s perceived risk of altering everyday behaviors. For instance, the proliferation of vaccination is anticipated to reduce preventive behaviors such as staying at home, handwashing, and wearing a mask. We corresponded with the same individuals monthly for 18 months from March 2020 (early stage of COVID-19) to September 2021 in Japan to independently construct large sample panel data (N=54,007), with a participation rate of 54.7 %. We used a fixed effects model, controlling for key confounders, to determine whether vaccination was associated with a change in preventive behaviors. The major findings are as follows. Contrary to the prediction, (1) based on the whole sample, being vaccinated against COVID-19 led people to stay at home; however, it did not change the habit of handwashing and wearing a mask. Especially after the second shot, respondents were likelier to stay at home by 0.107 (95% CIs: 0.059–0.154) points on a 5-point scale compared to before the vaccination. Dividing the entire sample into young and old, (2) those aged ≤ 40 years were more likely to go out after being vaccinated, and (3) people over 40 years of age were more likely to stay at home (similar to the first result). Preventive behaviors impact all individuals during the current pandemic. Informal social norms motivate people to increase or maintain preventive behaviors even after being vaccinated in societies where these behaviors are not enforced.