ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0281.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: protein structural dynamics; NQO1; ligand binding; protein stability; allostery; protein degradation
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:41:46 CEST)
Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a multi-functional protein whose alteration is associated with cancer, Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s diseases. NQO1 displays a remarkable functional chemistry, capable of binding different functional ligands that modulate its activity, stability and interaction with proteins and nucleic acids. Our understanding on this functional chemistry is limited by the difficulty of obtaining structural and dynamic information on many of these states. Herein, we have used hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass-spectrometry (HDXMS) to investigate the structural dynamics of NQO1 in three ligation states: without ligands (NQO1apo), with FAD (NQO1holo) and with FAD and the inhibitor dicoumarol (NQO1dic). We show that NQO1apo has a minimally stable folded core holding the protein dimer and with FAD and dicoumarol ligand binding sites populating binding non-competent conformations. Binding of FAD significantly decreases protein dynamics and stabilizes the FAD and dicoumarol binding sites as well as the monomer:monomer interface. Dicoumarol binding further stabilizes all three functional sites, a result not previously anticipated by available crystallographic models. Our work provides an experimental perspective into the communication of stability effects through the NQO1 dimer, valuable to understand at the molecular level the effects of disease-associated variants, post-translation modifications and ligand binding cooperativity in NQO1.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: HIF-1α; NQO1; hypoxia; angiogenesis; cancer; protein:protein interactions; ligand binding; proteasomal degradation
Online: 18 March 2020 (08:45:33 CET)
HIF-1α is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis involved in different stages of cancer development. Thus, HIF-1α inhibition represents an interesting target for anti-cancer therapy. It was recently shown that HIF-1α interaction with NQO1 inhibits its proteasomal degradation, thus suggesting that targeting the stability of NQO1 could led to destabilization of HIF-1α as a therapeutic approach. Since the molecular interactions of NQO1 with HIF-1α are beginning to be unraveled, we review here our current knowledge on the intracellular functions and stability of NQO1, its pharmacological modulation by small ligands, and the molecular determinants of its roles as a chaperone of many different proteins including cancer-associated factors such as p53 and p73α. This knowledge is then discussed in the context of potentially targeting the intracellular stability of HIF-1α by acting on its chaperone, NQO1. This could result in novel anti-cancer therapies.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: hyperoxaluria; oxalate; inhibitor; small molecule drug; glycolate oxidase; lactate dehydrogenase; liver selective distribution
Online: 31 December 2020 (08:59:47 CET)
Primary hyperoxalurias (PHs) are a group of inherited alterations of the hepatic glyoxylate metabolism. PHs classification based on gene mutations parallel a variety of enzymatic defects, and all involve the harmful accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals that produce systemic damage. These geographically widespread rare diseases have a deep impact in the life quality of the patients. Until recently, treatments were limited to palliative measures and kidney/liver transplants in the most severe forms. Efforts made to develop pharmacological treatments succeeded with the biotechnological agent lumasiran, a siRNA product against glycolate oxidase, which has become the first effective therapy to treat PH1. However, small molecule drugs have classically been preferred since they benefit from experience and have better pharmacological properties. The development of small molecule inhibitors designed against key enzymes of glyoxylate metabolism is on the focus of research. Enzyme inhibitors are successful and widely used in several diseases and their pharmacokinetic advantages are well known. In PHs, effective enzymatic targets have been determined and characterized for drug design and interesting inhibitory activities have been achieved both in vitro and in vivo. This review describes the most recent advances towards the development of small molecule enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of PHs, introducing the multi-target approach as a more effective and safe therapeutic option.