REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0771.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Electronic Health Record; EHR; Blockchain; Covid-19
Online: 29 April 2021 (10:31:52 CEST)
Electronic Health Record (EHR) is being used in most healthcare institutions to preserve and share health records instead of a paper-based method. Data records must be exchanged amongst various parties and users' privileges to manage access to their records should also be provided. In addition to the basic standards of secrecy, confidentiality and integrity of information, these facts further demonstrate the need for interoperability and consumer control to access their personal data. Electronic Health Record (EHR) system faces issues of protection of data, trust and management issues. In recent Covid-19 pandemic, various applications, tools and websites were launched that stores records. Also, many personal records related to health need to be shared among different parties for early detection, contact tracing, monitoring and the future prediction that requires accurate and reliable data. Simultaneously, the citizens will be hesitant in providing their personal details due to privacy concerns and social stigma. Blockchain technology has arisen as a powerful technology that can offer the immutability, confidentiality and user access properties of stored information and provided distributed storage. This paper analyses the blockchain suitability in EHR and its further applications in efficient Covid-19 pandemic management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0407.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: big data analytics; healthcare; data technologies; decision making; information management; EHR
Online: 31 March 2022 (12:24:19 CEST)
Big data analytics tools are the use of advanced analytic techniques targeting large and diverse volumes of data that include structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data from different sources and in different sizes from terabytes to zetabytes. The health sector is faced with the need to generate and manage large data sets from various health systems, such as electronic health records and clinical decision support systems. This data can be used by providers, clinicians, and policymakers to plan and implement interventions, detect disease more quickly, predict outcomes, and personalize care delivery. However, little attention is paid to the connection between big data analytics tools and the health sector. Thus, a systematic review of the bibliometric literature (LRSB) was developed to study how the adoption of big data analytics tools and infrastructures will revolutionize the healthcare industry. The review integrated 77 scientific and/or academic documents indexed in SCOPUS presenting up‐to‐date knowledge on current insights on how big data analytics technologies influence the healthcare sector and the different big data analytical tools used. The LRSB provides findings related to the impact of Big Data analytics on the health sector by introducing opportunities and technologies that provide practical solutions to various challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: deep learning; DNN; machine learning; breast cancer; metastasis, metastatic breast cancer, distant recurrence of breast cancer metastasis; prediction; clinical; EHR
Online: 29 June 2022 (04:06:16 CEST)
ABSTRACT Background It is important to be able to predict, for each individual patient, the likelihood of later metastatic occurrence, because the prediction can guide treatment plans tailored to a specific patient to prevent metastasis and to help avoid under- or over-treatment. Deep Neural Network (DNN) learning, commonly referred to as deep learning, has become popular due to its success in image detection and prediction, but questions such as whether deep learning outperforms other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data remain unanswered. Grid search has been introduced to deep learning hyperparameter tunning for the purpose of improving its prediction performance, but the effect of grid search on other machine learning methods are under-studied. In this research, we take the empirical approach to study the performance of deep learning and other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data to predict the occurrence of breast cancer metastasis (BCM) 5, 10, or 15-years after the initial treatment. We developed DNN models as well as models using 9 other machine learning methods including Naive Bayes (NB), Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), LASSO, Decision Tree (DT), k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Random Forrest (RF), AdaBoost (ADB), and XGBoost (XGB). We used grid search to tune hyperparameters for all methods. We then compared the deep learning models to the models trained using the 9 other machine learning methods. Results Based on the mean test AUC results, DNN ranks 6th, 4th, and 3rd when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM respectively, out of 10 machine learning methods. The top performing methods in predicting 5-year BCM are XGB(1st), RF(2nd), and KNN(3rd). For predicting 10-year BCM the top performers are XGB (1st), RF(2nd), and NB(3rd) . Finally, for 15-year BCM the top performers are SVM (1st), LR and LASSO (tied for 2nd), and DNN (3rd). The ensemble methods RF and XGB outperform other methods when data are less balanced, while SVM, LR, LASSO, and DNN outperform other methods when data are more balanced. Our statistical testing results show that at a significance level of 0.05 DNN overall performs no worse than other machine learning methods when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM. Conclusions Our results show that deep learning with grid search overall performs at least as well as other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data. It is interesting to note that some of the other machine learning methods such as XGB, RF, and SVM are very strong competitors of DNN when incorporating grid search. It is also worth noting that the computation time required to do grid search with DNN is way more than that required to do grid search with the other 9 machine learning methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0234.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: SIRD; Twitter; GHSI; Pre-symptomatic; EHR; Contact tracing; On-line survey; qRT-PCR; X-ray; CT/HRCT; CNN; Autoencoder; Drug affinity; CPI; and Inflation.
Online: 14 May 2020 (11:25:57 CEST)
World is now experiencing a major health calamity due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). The foremost challenge facing the scientific community is to explore the growth and transmission capability of the virus. Use of artificial intelligence (AI), such as, deep learning, in (i) rapid disease detection from x-ray/computerized tomography (CT)/ high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images, (ii) accurate prediction of the epidemic patterns and their saturation throughout the globe, (iii) identification of the epicenter in each country/state and forecasting the disease from social networking data, (iv) prediction of drug-protein interactions for repurposing the drugs, and (v) socio-economic impact and prediction of future relapses, has attracted much attention. In the present manuscript, we describe the role of various AI-based technologies for rapid and efficient detection from CT images complementing quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunodiagnostic assays. AI-based technologies to anticipate the current pandemic pattern, possibility of future relapses and socio-economic impact are also discussed. We inspect how the virus transmits depending on different factors, such as, population density and mobility among others. We depict how AI-based mobile app for contact tracing and surveys can prevent the transmission. A modified deep learning technique can assess affinity of the most probable drugs to treat COVID-19. Here a few effective antiviral drugs, such as, Geneticin, Avermectin B1, and Ancriviroc among others, have been reported with their appropriate validation from previous investigations.