ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0259.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain technology; Process authenticity; Tokens; Anchors; Oracles
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:54:39 CEST)
In the last four years, the evolution and adoption of blockchain and, more generally, distributed ledger systems have shown the affirmation of many concepts and models with significant differences in system governance and suitable applications. This work aims to update the critical analysis of blockchain technologies carried out by our previous contribution to this journal, extending the focus to distributed ledger components and systems. Starting from the topical concept of decentralization, we introduce concepts and building blocks currently adopted in the available systems centering on their functional aspects and impact on possible applications. We present some conceptual framing tools helpful in the application context, and we will propose the concept of process authenticity, which we will discuss through two use cases: blockchain document dematerialization and e-voting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Komagataeibacter rhaeticus; Bacterial cellulose; Crude glycerol; Minimal medium; Whole-genome analysis; Acetate
Online: 16 August 2021 (08:32:19 CEST)
Komagataeibacter spp. have been used for the bioconversion of industrial wastes and lignocellulosic hydrolysates to bacterial cellulose (BC). Recently studies have demonstrated the capacity of Komagataeibacter spp. in the biotransformation of inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, aromatic lignin-derived monomers (LDMs) and acetate. In general, detoxification and BC synthesis from lignocellulosic inhibitors requires a carbon flow from acetyl-coA towards tricarboxylic acid and gluconeogenesis, respectively. However, the related molecular aspects have not yet been identified in Komagataeibacter spp. In this study, we isolated a cellulose producing bacteria capable of synthesizing BC in a minimal medium containing crude glycerol, a by-product from biodiesel production process. The isolate, affiliated to Komagataeibacter genus, synthesized cellulose in minimal medium containing glucose (3.3±0.3 g/L), pure glycerol (2.2±0.1 g/L) and crude glycerol (2.1±0.1 g/L). Genome assembly and annotation identified four copies of bacterial cellulose synthase operon and genes for redirecting the carbon from central metabolic pathway to gluconeogenesis. According to the genome annotations, a BC production route from acetyl-CoA, a central metabolic intermediate, was hypothesized and was validated using acetate. We identified that when K. rhaeticus ENS9b was grown in minimal medium supplemented with acetate, BC production was not observed. However, in presence of readily utilizable substrate, such as spent yeast hydrolysate, acetate supplementation improved BC synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1840.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: MTT assay; cell toxicity; cytokine gene expression; nanoencapsulation; dynamic light scattering; topical formulation
Online: 27 July 2023 (03:54:21 CEST)
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), due to its bioactive compounds (terpenes and cannabinoids), has gained an increasing interest in different fields, including medical purposes. The evaluation of the safety profile of hemp essential oil (EO) and its encapsulated form (nanoemulsion, NE) is a relevant aspect for potential therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the toxicolog-ical effect of hemp EOs and NEs from cultivars Carmagnola CS and Uso 31, on three cell lines se-lected as models for topical and inhalant administration, by evaluating the cytotoxicity and the cytokine expression profiles. Results show that EOs and their NEs have comparable cytotoxicity, if considering the quantity of EO present in the NE. Moreover, cells treated with EOs and NEs showed, in most of the cases, lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to Etoposide used as positive control, and the basal level of inflammatory cytokines was not altered, suggest-ing a safety profile of hemp EOs and their NEs to support their use for medical applications.