REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Vitamin D; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; endothelialithis; CYP27B1; vitamin D receptor; CYP24A1
Online: 7 December 2020 (19:43:48 CET)
Vitamin D is a nutrient with anti-inflammatory properties whose role is currently being evaluated in COVID-19. Although studies are conflicting, they seem to suggest a role for vitamin D in reducing disease susceptibility but not in improving clinical outcome. In order to understand why vitamin D does not seem to have much effect on decreasing disease severity, it is essential to appreciate pulmonary vitamin D metabolism. To reach the pulmonary compartment, vascular endothelial cells would need to take up vitamin D from the blood stream, but they lack vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the activating enzyme CYP27B1. Endothelialitis – an important disease manifestation of COVID-19 – is therefore not expected to be directly affected by vitamin D. Bronchial epithelial cells are usually among the first to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. They do express both VDR and CYP27B1, but circulating vitamin D may not reach bronchial epithelial cells without transportation from the blood stream through the blood vessel wall. Inhalation therapy with vitamin D has therefore been suggested as an alternative for oral administration to bypass endothelial cells and efficaciously target bronchial epithelium. In conclusion, based on the principles of pulmonary vitamin D metabolism, it is not expected that vitamin D administration has a significant effect on COVID-19 severity. Vitamin D is more likely to reduce SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, but reaching the airways with oral supplementation will be difficult and vitamin D inhalation therapy should be considered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Vitamin D; VDR; CYP27B1; CYP2R1; CYP24A1; GC; DHCR7; Genetic variation; Polymorphism; Systematic review
Online: 11 July 2022 (04:57:43 CEST)
Background: Studies have demonstrated the link between vitamin D-related genetic variations and non-skeletal outcomes. We aimed to identify all available data on the association of vitamin D-related genetic variations with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Potentially eligible studies were identified from Embase and Medline databases from inception to June 2022 using search strategy that comprised terms for “Vitamin D” and “NAFLD”. Eligible study must report the association between vitamin D-related genetic variations and presence, severity or response to treatment of NAFLD. Data were extracted from each eligible study. Results: A total of 3,495 articles were identified. After systematic review, twelve studies were in-cluded. A total of 26 genetic variations were identified. Presence of NAFLD was associated with variations of GC (rs222054, rs222020, rs10011000, rs7041), VDR (rs2228570, rs11168287, rs10783219, rs4752), CYP24A1 (rs3787557, rs6068816, rs2296241, rs2248359) and CYP27B1 (rs4646536). Severity of NAFLD was associated with variations of GC (rs4588), VDR (rs2228570, rs4334089), CYP2R1 (rs10741657), DHCR7 (rs1544410, rs3829251, rs12785878) and CYP24A1 (rs3787557, rs6068816, rs6097809, rs6127119, rs2248359, rs3787554, rs4809960, rs6022999). Response to calcitriol treatment was associated with variation of VDR (rs10735810). Conclusions: Multiple vitamin D-related genetic variations were associated with NAFLD, indi-cating the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.